Effects of serpentinization degree on the geotechnical characteristics of ultramafic rocks in the southwest of Mashhad city (Iran)

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Iran

Abstract

The present work was conducted to investigate the geotechnical properties of two meta-peridotites and meta-pyroxenites of an ultramafic complex mainly consisting of ultramafic rocks. For this purpose, microscopic studies were performed to determine the percentage of serpentinization in these rocks. In addition, a number of mechanical and physical tests were performed on collected samples with different serpentinization grades to determine their geotechnical properties. Finally, the serpentinization degree and geotechnical results were compared for meta-peridotites and meta-pyroxenites. The results revealed a closed relationship among the serpentinization degree, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), and density. Due to the high costs of the UCS test, this study attempts to establish a relationship between these parameters. To demonstrate the relationship between these parameters, the obtained results are presented as a single graph. So, the UCS can be estimated based on the BTS, density, and the serpentinization degree. The results showed that the field behavior of rock masses also could be used to predict the UCS) range and degree of serpentinization. Overall, these results can be useful for determining the geotechnical properties of these rocks.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

-

Abdelaziz, R., Abdel-Rahman, Y., Wilhelm, S., 2018. Landsat-8 data for chromite prospecting in the Logar Massif, Afghanistan. Heliyon, 4: 1–18.##
Aligholi, S., Lashkaripour, GR., Ghafoori, M., 2017a. Strength/Brittleness classification of igneous intact rocks based on basic physical and dynamic properties. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 50: 45–65.##
Aligholi, S., Lashkaripour, GR., Ghafoori, M., TrighAzali, S., 2017b. Evaluating the relationships between
NTNU/SINTEF drillability indices with index properties and petrographic data of hard igneous rocks. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 50: 2929–2953.##
Arel, E., Tuğrul, A., 2001. Weathering and its relation to geomechanical properties of Çavuşbaşı granitic rocks in northwestern Turkey. Bulletin Engineering Geology Environ, 60: 123–133.##
Armaghani, D.J., Tonnizam, E., Hajihassani, M., Yagiz, S., Motaghedi, H., 2015. Application of several non-linear prediction tools for estimating uniaxial compressive strength of granitic rocks and comparison of their performances. Engineering with Computers, 32: 189–206.##
Bieniawski, Z.T., 1974. Estimating the strength of rock materials. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Geological, fluid inclusion and isotopic characteristics of the Gardaneshir … 247 Metallurgy, 74: 312–320.##
Boulin, J., 1988. Hercynian and Eocimmerian events in Afghanistan and adjoining regions. Tectonophysics, 148: 253-278.##
Brisevac, Z., Kujundzic, T., Cajic, S., 2015. Current Cognition of Rock Tensile Strength Testing By Brazilian Test. The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin, 30: 101–114.##
Ceryan, S., Tudes, S., Ceryan, N., 2008. Influence of weathering on the engineering properties of Harsit granitic rocks (NE Turkey). Bulletin Engineering Geology Environ, 67: 97–104.##
Christensen, N.I., 1966. Shear-wave vetocities in metamorphic rocks at pressures to 10 kbar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 71:3549–3556.##
Christensen,N.I., 2004. Serpentinites, peridotites and seismology. International Geology Review, 46: 795–816.##
Courtier, A., Hart, D., Christensen, N.I., 2004. Seismic properties of leg 195 serpentinites and their geophysical implications. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results, 195: 1–12.##
Dobretsov, N.L., 1974. Glaucophane metamorphism and three types of ophiolite complexes. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 216 (6): 1383–1386.##
Dobretsov, N.L., Moldavantsev, Yu.E., Kazak, A.P., Ponomareva, L.G., Savel’eva, G.N., Savel’ev, A.A., 1977.
Petrology and Metamorphism of Ancient Ophiolites (by the Example of the Arctic Urals and West Sayan) [in Russian]. Nauka, Novosibirsk.##
Dobretsov, N.L., 1980. Introduction to Global Petrology [in Russian]. Nauka, Novosibirsk.##
Dobretsov, N.L., 1985. Riphean–Lower Paleozoic Ophiolites of Northern Eurasia [in Russian]. Nauka, Novosibirsk.##

Dobretsov, N.L., Konnikov, E.G., Sklyarov, E.V., Medvedev, V.N., 1986. Marianite-boninite series and evolution of ophiolite magmatism of East Sayan. Soviet Geology and Geophysics, 27 (12): 29–35.##
Dobretsov, N.L., Watanabe, T., Natal’in, B., Miyashita, S., 1994. Comparison of ophiolites and blueschists of Sakhalin and Hokkaido. Ofioliti, 19: 157–176.##
Diamantis, K., Gartzos, E., Migiros, G., 2009. Study on uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength index, dynamic and physical properties of serpentinites from Central Greece: test results and empirical relations. Engineering Geology, 108: 199-207.##
Diamantis, K., 2010. Engineering geological properties of the ultrabasic rocks in Othrys and Kallidromo mountains (central Greece). Phd Thesis, Athens, 386 pp.##
Escartin, J., Hirth, G., Evans, B., 2001. Strength of slightly serpentinized peridotites:mplications for the tectonics of oceanic lithosphere. Geological Society of America, 29(11): 1023–1026.##
Everall, T., Sanislav, J., 2018. The Influence of Pre-Existing Deformation and Alteration Textures on Rock Strength, Failure Modes and Shear Strength Parameters. Geosciences, 8: 124-138.##
Faust, G. T., Fahey, J. J., 1964. The Serpentine-Group Minerals. Correlation of the physical and chemical properties in terms of crystal chemistry and the application of geo chemical data to thepetrogenesis of serpentine and ultrabasic rocks. United states government printing office, Washington, 384 pp.##
Hynes, A., 1975. Comment on “The Troodos ophiolitic complex was probably formed in an island arc”, by A. Miyashiro. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 25: 2l3–216.##
ISRM, 1978. Suggested methods for determining tensile strength of rock materials. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 15: 99–103.##
ISRM, 1979. Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining. Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 16: 135-140.##
ISRM, 1981. In: Brown, E.T. (Ed), ISRM Suggested Methods: Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring.
Pergamon Press, London, 211 p.ISRM, 1985. Suggested methods for determining point load strength. , International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining. Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 22: 51–60.##
ISRM, 2007. In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA (eds) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 1974–2006. Suggested methods prepared by the commission on testing methods, International Society for Rock Mechanics, compilation arranged by the ISRM Turkish National Group. Ankara, Turkey, p 628.##
Kahraman, S., 2014. The determination of uniaxial compressive strength from point load strength for pyroclastic rocks. Engineering Geology, 170: 33-42.##
Karakus, M., Tutmez, B., 2006. Fuzzy and multiple regression modelling for evaluation of intact rock strength based on point load, Schmidt hammer and sonic velocity. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 39: 45–57.##
Karaman, K., Cihangir, F., Ercikdi, B., Kesimal, A., Demirel, S., 2015. Utilization of the Brazilian test for estimating the uniaxial compressive strength and shear strength parameters. The Journal of the southern African institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 115: 185-192.##
Khanchuk, A. I., Vysotskiy, S. V., 2015. Different-depth gabbro–ultrabasite associations in the Sikhote-Alin
ophiolites (Russian Far East). Russian Geology and Geophysics, 57: 141–154. 248 Afshar et al. Geopersia, 9 (2), 2019##
Kiliç, R., Koçbay, A., Sel, T., 1998. The geomechanical properties and alteration degree of serpentinite in the Ankara Ophiolitic Melange, Turkey. In: 8th International IAEG Congress, Proceedings, Vancouver, 1: 243–251.##
Kilic, A., Teymen, A., 2008. Determination of mechanical properties of rocks using simple methods. Bulletin
Engineering Geology Environ, 67: 237–244.##
Koumantakis, J., 1982. Comportement des peridotites et serpentinites de la Grece en travaux public. Leur propretes physiques et mechaniques, Bulletin of the International association of engineering geology, 25: 53–60.##
Lashkaripour, GR., 2002. Predicting mechanical properties of mudrock from index parameters. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 61: 73–77.##
Marastoni, D., Pela, L., Benedetti, A., Roca, P., 2016. Combining Brazilian tests on masonry cores and double punch tests for the mechanical characterization of historical mortars. Construction and Building materials, 112: 112–127.##
Marinos, P., Hoek, E., Marinos, V., 2006. Variability of the engineering properties of rock masses quantified by the geological strength index: the case of ophiolites with special emphasis on tunneling. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 65: 129–142.##
Markov, M.S., Nekrasov, G.E., Khotin, M.Yu., Sharas’kin, A.Ya., 1977. Petrochemical peculiarities of ophiolites and some problems of their genesis. Geotektonika, 6: 15–31.##
Mishra, DA., Basu, A., 2012. Use of the block punch test to predict the compressive and tensile strengths of rocks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 51: 119-127.##
Miyashiro, A., 1975. Classification, characteristics and origin of ophiolites, Journal of Geology, 83: 249–291.##
Coleman, R.G., 1977. Ophiolites: Ancient Oceanic Lithosphere? Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
Momeni, A.A., Khanlari, GR., Heidari, M., Sepahi, A. A., Bazvand, E., 2015. New engineering geological weathering classifications for granitoid rocks. Engineering Geology, 185: 43-51.##
Moores, E.M., 1975. Discussion of “Origin of Troodos and other ophiolites: A reply to Hynes”, by Akiho Miyashiro. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 25: 223–226.##
Ozsoy, E.A., Yilmaz, G., Arman, H., 2010. Physical, mechanical and mineralogical properties of ophiolitic rocks at the Yakakayi dam site, Eskisehir, Turkey. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(17): 2579–2587.##
Paventi, M., Scoble, M., Stead, D., 1996. Characteristics of a complex serpentinised ultramafic rock mass at the Birchtree Mine. Manitoba. In: Mitri, H. Aubertin (Ed.), North American Rock Mechanics Symposium. Rotterdam, 1: 339–346.##
Přikryl, R., 2006. Assessment of rock geomechanical quality by quantitative rock fabric coefficients: Limitations and possible source of misinerpretations. Engineering Geology, 87: 149–162.##
Pola, A., Crosta, G., Fusi, N., Barberini, V., Norini, G., 2012. Influence of alteration on physical properties of volcanic rocks. Tectonophysics, 566: 67–86.##
Pola, A., Crosta, G.B., Fusi, N., Castellanza, R., 2014. General characterization of the mechanical behaviour of different volcanic rocks with respect to alteration. Engineering Geology, 169: 1–13.##
Promyslova, M. Yu., Demina, L. I., Bychkov, A. Yu., Gushchin, A. I., 2016. Ophiolitic Association of Cape Fiolent Area, Southwestern Crimea. Geotectonics, 50: 21-34.##
Rabbani, E., Sharif, F., KoolivandSalooki, M., Moradzadeh, A., 2012. Application of neural network technique for prediction of uniaxial compressive strength using reservoir formation properties. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 56: 100–111.##
Rajabi, A., Omidi Moaf, F., 2017. Simple empirical formula to estimate the main geomechanical parameters of preplaced aggregate concrete and conventional concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 146: 485–492.##
Rao, M.V.M.S., Ramana, Y.V., 1974. Dilatant Behaviour of Ultramafic Rocks during Fracture. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Geomechanics abstract, Pergamon Press, 227(1-4): 193–203.##
Rigopoulos, I., 2009. Correlation between petrographic and physico-mechanical properties of the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolitic rocks and assessment of their suitability as aggregates in construction-industrial uses. PhD thesis, University of Patras.##
Rigopoulos, I., Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2010. The influence of alteration on the engineering properties of dolerites: The examples from the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolites (northern Greece). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 47: 69–80.##
Rigopoulos, I., Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2012. The impact of petrographic characteristics on the engineering properties of ultrabasic rocks from central and northern Greece, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 45: 423–433.##
Rigopoulos, I., Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2013. Determination of the interrelations between the engineering parameters of construction aggregates from ophiolite complexes of Greece using factor analysis. Construction and Building Materials, 49: 747–757.##
Shcheglov, A.D., Bur’yanova, I.Z., Vasil’kovskii, N.P., Govorov, I.N., Shcheka, S.A. (Eds.), 1984. Volcanic Belts in Eastern Asia [in Russian]. Nauka, Moscow.##
Siratovich, P.A., Heap, M.J., Villenueve, M.C., Cole, J.W., Reuschlé, T., 2014. Physical property relationships of the Geological, fluid inclusion and isotopic characteristics of the Gardaneshir … 249##
Rotokawa Andesite, a significant geothermal reservoir rock in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, Geothermal energy, 2(1): 10–31.##
Sonmez, H., Tuncay, E., Gokceoglu, C., 2004. Models to predict the uniaxial compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity for Ankara agglomerate. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (5): 717–729.##
Sonmez, H., Gokceoglu, C., Medley, E.W., Tuncay, E., Nefeslioglu, H.A., 2006. Estimating the uniaxial compressive strength of a volcanic bimrock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 43(4): 554–561.##
Stampfli, G.M., 1996. The intra-alpine terrain: a Paleo-Tethyan remnant in the alpine variscides. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 89: 13–42.##
Styles, M.T., Sanna, A., Lacinska, A.M., Naden, J. and Maroto-Valer, M., 2014. The variation in composition of
ultramafic rocks and the effect on their suitability for carbon dioxide sequestration by mineralization following acid leaching. Modeling and Analysis, 4(1): 1-12.##
Ündül, Ö., Tuğrul, A., 2012. The influence of weathering on the engineering properties of dunites. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 45: 225-239.##
Vysotskiy, S.V., 1989. Ophiolite Associations of the Pacific Island-Arc Systems [in Russian]. Izd. DVO AN SSSR,
Vladivostok.##
Vysotskiy, S.V., 1996. Ophiolite and Boninite–Ophiolite Associations of the West Pacific Island-Arc Systems. ScD Thesis. MGU, Moscow.##
Wong, R., Chau, KT., Yin, J., Lai, D., Zhao, G., 2017. Uniaxial compressive strength and point load index of volcanic irregular lumps. International journal of rock mechanics & mining sciences, 93: 307-315.##
Wyering, L.D., Villeneuve, M.C., Wallis, I.C., Siratovich, P.A., Kennedy, B.M., Gravley, D.M., Cant, J.L., 2014.
Mechanical and physical properties of hydrothermally altered rocks, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 288: 76-93.##
Yilmaz, I., Yuksek, A.G., 2008. An example of artificial neural network (ANN) application for indirect. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 41: 781-795.##
Zanchi, A., Zanchetta, S., Berra, F., Mattei, M., Garzanti, E., Molyneux, S., Nawab, A. and Sabouri, J., 2009. The Eo- Cimmerian (Late? Triassic) orogeny in north Iran. In: Brunet, M.-F.,Wilmsen, M., Granath, J.W. (Eds.), South Caspian to Central Iran Basins. Geological Society of London Special Publication, 312: 31-55.##
Zein, A., Sandal, M., 2018. Estimation of the strength of Nubian sandstone formation from point load test index and other simple parameters MATEC Web of Conferences 149, 02024, 6 pages, Doi.org/10.105/matecconf##