Hydrogeochemical evaluation of springs water for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes in Alvand heights of Hamedan, west of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Water Science Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


Alvand heights can be considered a suitable site for reserving a significant volume of water. The main contributors to this potential are lithology (mainly comprised of igneous rocks and metamorphism), erosion performance, and tectonic forces regarding their roles in feeding hard formations. In the present study, the hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of water resources in Alvand heights are evaluated. Also, the effect of geological formations on the quality of these resources is investigated. For hydrogeochemical studies of water resources of hard formations of Alvand heights and their suitability for drinking, agricultural, and industrial uses in the study area, 27 water samples were collected from the region’s springs and subjected to chemical analyses. The predominant water type in all samples is the bicarbonate-calcium. Generally, the water quality of the springs for domestic and drinking purposes is in good condition in terms of hardness such that the samples have no permanent hardness and are soft water based on the total hardness. Based on various indicators (i.e., SAR, EC, Na+%, and RSC), the water quality of the springs was assessed as very good for agricultural use and irrigation. Evaluating these indicators showed that most springs have corrosive and invasive waters. Moreover, the hydrochemical composition of the region’s aquifers is mainly affected by geological and geochemical factors, including weathering of igneous rocks, metamorphism, feldspar minerals (especially plagioclase and orthoclase), and biotite.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 10 April 2023
  • Receive Date: 10 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 12 March 2023
  • Accept Date: 10 April 2023