Influence of rock specimen diameter size on the ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic elastic constants

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Islamic Republic of Iran

2 Department of civil engineering, Gonbad Kavoos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gonbad Kavoos, Islamic Republic of Iran


The ultrasonic pulse velocity including P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocity and elastic constants including the elastic modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (ν) are among most important parameters for estimating the strength and deformability properties of rocks. The specimen diameter size is one of the main factors that influence Vp, Vs, E and ν. This study presents the influence of specimen diameter size on the Vp, Vs, E and ν of sandstones. Moreover, we have investigated the accuracy of porosity (n) for estimating the Vp, Vs, E and ν at different diameters size. For this purpose, 10 sandstone samples were collected and core specimens with a diameters size of 24, 40, 54, 68, and 80 mm were prepared. Then, density (ρ), n, Vp, Vs, E and ν of sandstones were determined. It is concluded that the specimen diameter size has a significant influence Vp, Vs, E and ν. Moreover, the results showed that n is in good accuracy for estimating the Vp, Vs and E, while there are no meaningful correlations between ν with n.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]


Al-Shayea, NA., 2004. Effects of testing methods and conditions on the elastic properties of limestone
rock. Eng. Geol., 74: 139-156.##
Ameen, MS., Smart, BG., Somerville, JM., Hammilton, S., Naji, NA., 2009. Predicting rock mechanical
properties of carbonates from wireline logs (a case study: Arab-D reservoir, Ghawar field, Saudi
Arabia). Mar. Pet. Geol., 26: 430-444.##
Anon., 1979. Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping. part 1: Rock and soil
materials. Bull. Eng. Geo. Environ., 19: 355-371.##
Ayaz, Y., Kocamaz, AF., Karakoç, MB., 2015. Modeling of compressive strength and UPV of highvolume
mineral-admixtured concrete using rule-based M5 rule and tree model M5P classifiers.
Constr. Build. Mater., 94: 235-240.##
Brandes, HG., Robertson, IN., Johnson, GP., 2011. Soil and Rock Properties in a Young Volcanic
Deposit on the Island of Hawaii. J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 137 (6).##
Brotons, V., Tomas, R., Ivorra, S., Grediaga, A., 2014. Relationship between static and dynamic elastic
modulus of calcarenite heated at different temperatures: the San Julians stone. Bull. Eng. Geol.
Environ., 73: 791-799.##
Christaras, B., Auger, F., Mosse, E., 1994. Determination of the moduli of elasticity of rocks.
Comparison of the ultrasonic velocity and mechanical resonance frequency methods with direct static
methods. Mater. Struct., 27: 222-228.##
Ciccotti, M., Mulargia, E., 2004. Differences between static and dynamic elastic moduli of a typical
seismogenic rock. Geophys. J. Int., 157: 474-477.##
Eissa, EA., Kazi, A., 1988. Relation between static and dynamic Young´s Moduli of rocks. Int. J. Rock
Mech. Min. Sci., 25: 479-482.##
Ercikdi, B., Karaman, K., Cihangir, F., Yılmaz, T., Aliyazıcıoglu, S., Kesimal, A. 2016. Core size effect
on the dry and saturated ultrasonic pulse velocity of limestone samples. Ultrasonics 72: 143-149.##
Ercikdi, B., Yilmaz, T., Kulekci, K., 2014. Strength and ultrasonic properties cemented paste backfill.
Ultrasonics 54: 1386-1394.##
Eskisar, T., Altun, S., Kalıpcılar, I., 2015. Assessment of strength development and freeze-thaw
performance of cement treated clays at different water contents. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 111: 50-59.##
Fahy, MP., Guccione, MJ., 1979. Estimating strength of sandstone using petrographic thin-section data.
Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 16: 467-485.##
Fener, M., 2011. The Effect of Rock Sample Dimension on the P-Wave Velocity. J. Nondestruct. Eval.,
30: 99-105.##
Geological map of Khorramabad 1:25000., 2011. By Zamin Danesh-e-Pars consulting engineers.##
Hashemi, M., Bashiri Goudarzi, M., Jamshidi, A., 2018. Experimental investigation on the performance
of Schmidt hammer test in durability assessment of carbonate building stones against freeze-thaw
weathering. Environ. Earth Sci., 77, 684.##
ISRM., 1981. Rock characterization testing and monitoring. ISRM suggested methods. In: Brown ET
(ed), Pergamon Press, Oxford.##
Folk, RL., 1974. Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill, Austin, p 182##
Jamshidi, A., Torabi-Kaveh, M., 2020. Anisotropy in ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic elastic constants of laminated sandstone. Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol., 45: 927–936.##
Jamshidi, A.,  Torabi-Kaveh, M., Nikudel, MR., 2021. Effect of Anisotropy on the Strength and Brittleness Indices of Laminated Sandstone. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Sci., 45: 927–936.##
Jasinge, D., Ranjith, PG., Choi, SK., Kodikara, j., 2009. Mechanical Properties of Reconstituted
Australian Black Coal. J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 135 (7): 980-985.##
Ju, Y., Yang, Y., Peng, R., Lingtao Mao, L., 2013. Effects of Pore Structures on Static Mechanical
376 Jamshidi & Yazarloo
Properties of Sandstone. J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 139 (10): 435-442.##
Karaman, K., Kaya, A., Kesimal, A., 2015. Effect of the specimen length on ultrasonic Pwave velocity
in some volcanic rocks and limestones. J. Afr. Earth Sci., 112: 142-149.##
Khandelwal, M., Singh, TN., 2011. Predicting elastic properties of schistose rocks from unconfined
strength using intelligent approach. Arab. J. Geosc., 4: 435-442.##
King, M.S., 1983. Static and dynamic elastic properties of rocks from the canadian shield. Int. J. Rock
Mech. Min. Sci., 20: 237-241.##
Koncagül, E., Santi, P., 1999. Predicting the unconfined compressive strength of the Breathitt shale
using slake durability, Shore hardness and rock structural properties. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci.,
36: 139-153.##
Martınez-Martınez, J., Benavente, D., Garcıa-del-Cura, MA., 2012. Comparison of the static and
dynamic elastic modulus in carbonate rocks. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 71: 263-268.##
Matula, M., Dearman, W.R., and Golodkovskaja, G.A., Pahl, A., Radbruch-Hall Dorothy, H.,
Sanejouand, R., 1979. Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping. part 1:
Rock and soil materials. Bull. Eng. Geo. Environ., 19: 364-371.##
Najibi, AR., Ghafoori, M., Lashkaripour, G.R., 2015. Empirical relations between strength and static
and dynamic elastic properties of Asmari and Sarvak limestones, two main oil reservoirs in Iran. J.
Pet. Sci. Eng., 126: 78-82.##
Ocak, I., Seker, SE., 2012. Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Intact Rocks by Artificial Neural Network.
Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 45: 1047-1054.##
Özkan, I., Yayla, Z. 2016. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse
velocity of fired clay samples. Ultrasonics 66: 4-10.##
Poulton, MM., Sternberg, BK., Farmer, I.W., 1991. In Situ Strength Measurements of Weak Rocks. J.
Geotech. Eng., 117 (9):11-20.##
Roshan, H., Masoumi, H., Zhang, Y., Al-Yaseri, AZ., 2018. Microstructural Effects on Mechanical
Properties of Shaly Sandstone. J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 144 (2): 11-25.##
Shakoor, A., Bonelli, RE., 1991. Relationship between petrographic characteristics, engineering index
properties and mechanical properties of selected sandstones. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 28: 55-71.##
Ulusay, R., Tureli, K., Ider, MH., 1994. Prediction of engineering properties of a selected litharenite
sandstone from its petrographic characteristics using correlation and multivariate statistical
techniques. Eng. Geol., 37: 135-157.##
Vasconcelos, G., Lourenço, PB., Alves, CAS., Pamplona, J., 2008. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical
and mechanical properties of granites. Ultrasonics 48: 453-466.##
Wua, D., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., 2016. Mechanical performance and ultrasonic properties of cemented
gangue backfill with admixture of fly ash. Ultrasonics 64: 89-96.##
Yagiz, S., 2011. P-wave velocity test for the assessment of some geotechnical properties of rock
materials. Bull. Mater. Sci., 34: 943-957.##
Yilmaz, I., 2007. Differences in the geotechnical properties of two types of gypsum: alabastrine and
porphyritic. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 66: 187-195.##
Yilmaz, T., Ercikdi, B., Karaman, K., Kulekci, G., 2014. Assessment of strength properties of cemented
paste backfill by ultrasonic pulse velocity test. Ultrasonics 54: 1386-1394.##
Zalooli, A., Khamehchiyan, M., Nikudel, M.R., Jamshidi, A., 2017. Deterioration of travertine samples
due to magnesium sulfate crystallization pressure: examples from Iran. Geotech. Geol. Eng., 35(1):