3D inverse modeling of electrical resistivity and induced polarization data versus geostatistical-based modeling

Document Type : Research Paper


School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


This work aims to compare the 3D geophysical inversion models of electrical resistivity and chargeability with the 3D geostatistical-based models interpolated from 2D inversion of electrical data. The Takht-e-Gonbad Cu deposit situated in the central domain of Iran is chosen to find out the spatial correlation of the porphyry-type ore deposition with the electrical properties. Assuming an ordinary kriging algorithm, the inverted 2D electrical models were interpolated in 3D domain to provide insights about the geometry of Cu-bearing mineralization. Higher values of electrical resistivity and chargeability corresponded to the anomalous zones of Cu mineralization through a fractal analysis of concentration-number (C-N) model derived from exploratory drillings. Surveyed geophysical data were also inverted directly in 3D electrical models to compare them with the geostatistical models, showing that the 3D inversion could much better preserve the geometry of the Cu occurrences, and their classified fractal models were much in close association to each other. The correlation coefficients between the 3D electrical models and the Cu concentration were higher than the geostatistical models, and there is clearly information in the inversion result that is not being captured in the geostatistical interpolation. The significance of this study lies in improvement of the performance of 3D inversion methodology over 3D geostatisitcal interpolation.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]


Abedi, M., Asghari, O., Norouzi, G.-H., 2015. Collocated cokriging of iron deposit based on a model of
magnetic susceptibility: a case study in Morvarid mine, Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(4):
Afzal, P., Tehrani, M.E., Ghaderi, M., Hosseini, M.R., 2016. Delineation of supergene enrichment,
hypogene and oxidation zones utilizing staged factor analysis and fractal modeling in Takht-e-
Gonbad porphyry deposit, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 161: 119-127.##
Aguilef, S., Vargas, J.A., Yáñez, G., 2017. Relationship between bulk mineralogy and induced
polarisation responses in iron oxide-copper-gold and porphyry copper mineralisation, northern Chile.
Exploration Geophysics, 48(4): 353-362.##
Alirezaei, S., Hassanpour, S., 2011. An overview of porphyry copper deposits in Iran. The 1st world
copper congress, Iran.##
Asghari, O., Sheikhmohammadi, S., Abedi, M., Norouzi, G., 2016. Multivariate geostatistics based on
a model of geo-electrical properties for copper grade estimation: a case study in Seridune, Iran.
Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 57(1): 43-58.##
Babaei, M., Abedi, M., Norouzi, G.-H., Kazem Alilou, S., 2019. Geostatistical modeling of electrical
resistivity tomography for imaging porphyry Cu mineralization in Takht-e-Gonbad deposit, Iran.
Journal of Mining and Environment, 11: 143-159.##
Bentley, L.R., Gharibi, M., 2004. Two-and three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging at a
heterogeneous remediation site. Geophysics, 69(3): 674-680.##
Daneshvar Saein, L., Afzal, P., 2017. Correlation between Mo mineralization and faults using
geostatistical and fractal modeling in porphyry deposits of Kerman Magmatic Belt, SE Iran. Journal
of Geochemical Exploration, 181: 33-343.##
deGroot-Hedlin, C., Constable, S., 1990. Occam’s inversion to generate smooth, two-dimensional
models from magnetotelluric data. Geophysics, 55(12): 1613-1624.##
Deng, J., Wang, Q., Yang, L., Wang, Y., Gong, Q., Liu, H., 2010. Delineation and explanation of
geochemical anomalies using fractal models in the Heqing area, Yunnan Province, China. Journal of
Geochemical Exploration, 105(3): 95-105.##
Fakhari, S., Jafarirad, A., Afzal, P., Lotfi, M., 2019. Delineation of hydrothermal alteration zones for
porphyry systems utilizing ASTER data in Jebal-Barez area, SE Iran. Iranian Journal of Earth
Sciences, 11: 80-92.##
Gharibi, M., Bentley, L.R., 2005. Resolution of 3-D electrical resistivity images from inversions of 2-D
orthogonal lines. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 10(4): 339-349.##
Gunther, T., Rucker, C., Spitzer, K., 2006. Three-dimensional modelling and inversion of dc resistivity
data incorporating topography—II. Inversion. Geophysical Journal International, 166(2): 506-517.##
Hassanpour, S., Afzal, P., 2013. Application of concentration–number (C–N) multifractal modeling for
Geopersia 2021, 11(2): 319-336 335##
geochemical anomaly separation in Haftcheshmeh porphyry system, NW Iran. Arabian Journal of
Geosciences, 6(3): 957-970.##
Hosseini, M., 2012. Mineralogy, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and genesis of Takht-e-Gonbad copper
deposit, northeast Sirjan (M. Sc. thesis). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 257 p.##
Hosseini, M., Ghaderi, M., Alirezaei, S., 2011. Geology, alteration and mineralization characteristics of
Takht-e-Gonbad copper deposit, northeast Sirjan. Proceedings of the 1st World Copper Congress,
Tehran, Iran.##
Hosseini, M.R., Ghaderi, M., Alirezaei, S., Sun, W., 2017. Geological characteristics and geochronology
of the Takht-e-Gonbad copper deposit, SE Iran: A variant of porphyry type deposits. Ore Geology
Reviews, 86: 440-458.##
Izadi Yazdanabadi, M., Hojat, A., Ranjbar, H., Karimi Nasab, S., 2017. A Geographic Information
Systembased site selection experience for the construction of a geomagnetic observatory in
Kerman Province, Iran. Geophysical Prospecting, 65: 237-245.##
Jebeli, M., Afzal, P., Pourkermani, M., Jafari Rad, A., 2018. Correlation between rock types and Copper
mineralization using fractal modeling in Kushk-e-Bahram deposit, Central Iran. Geopersia, 8(1):
Loke, M., Barker, R., 2006. Rapid leastsquares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections by a
quasiNewton method. Geophysical Prospecting, 44(1): 131-152.##
Loke, M., Wilkinson, P., Chambers, J., Meldrum, P., 2018. Rapid inversion of data from 2D resistivity
surveys with electrode displacements. Geophysical Prospecting, 66(3): 579-594.##
Loke, M.H., 2004. Tutorial: 2-D and 3-D electrical imaging surveys.##
Loke, M.H., Acworth, I., Dahlin, T., 2003. A comparison of smooth and blocky inversion methods in
2D electrical imaging surveys. Exploration geophysics, 34(3): 182-187.##
Loke, M.H., Barker, R.D., 1996. Rapid leastsquares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections
by a quasiNewton method. Geophysical prospecting, 44(1): 131-152.##
Mohammadi, N.M., Hezarkhani, A., 2018. Application of support vector machine for the separation of
mineralised zones in the Takht-e-Gonbad porphyry deposit, SE Iran. Journal of African Earth
Sciences, 143: 301-308.##
Mohammadpour, M., Bahroudi, A., Abedi, M., Rahimipour, G., Jozanikohan, G., Khalifani, F.M., 2019.##
Geochemical distribution mapping by combining number-size multifractal model and multiple
indicator kriging. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 200: 13-26.##
Mostafaie, K., Ramazi, H., 2015. Application of electrical resistivity method in sodium sulfate deposits
exploration, case study: Garmab, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 6(2):
Mostafaie, K., Ramazi, H. R., Jalali, M., 2014. Application of integrated geophysical and geostatistical
methods in Amiriyeh site classification. Geodyn Res Int Bull (GRIB), 2(2): 1-15.##
Oldenburg, D.W., Li, Y., Ellis, R.G., 1997. Inversion of geophysical data over a copper gold porphyry
deposit: a case history for Mt. Milligan. Geophysics, 62(5): 1419-1431.##
Pain, C.C., Herwanger, J.V., Worthington, M.H., Oliveira, C.R.d., 2002. Effective multidimensional
resistivity inversion using finite-element techniques. Geophysical Journal International, 151(3): 710-
Ramazi, H., Jalali, M., 2015. Contribution of geophysical inversion theory and geostatistical simulation
to determine geoelectrical anomalies. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 59(1): 97-112.##
Ranjbar, H., Honarmand, M., Moezifar, Z., 2004. Application of the Crosta technique for porphyry
copper alteration mapping, using ETM+ data in the southern part of the Iranian volcanic sedimentary
belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24(2): 237-243.##
Saadati, H., Afzal, P., Torshian, H., Solgi, A., 2020. Geochemical exploration for Li using Geochemical
Mapping Prospectivity Index (GMPI), fractal and Stage Factor Analysis (SFA) in NE Iran.
Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 20: 461-472.##
Sadeghi, B., Moarefvand, P., Afzal, P., Yasrebi, A.B., Saein, L.D., 2012. Application of fractal models
to outline mineralized zones in the Zaghia iron ore deposit, Central Iran. Journal of Geochemical
Exploration, 122: 9-19.##
Saein, L.D., Rasa, I., Omran, N.R., Moarefvand, P., Afzal, P., 2012. Application of concentrationvolume
fractal method in induced polarization and resistivity data interpretation for Cu-Mo porphyry
deposits exploration, case study: Nowchun Cu-Mo deposit, SE Iran. Nonlinear Processes in
336 Babaei et al.
Geophysics, 19(4): 431-438.##
Saric, V., Mijalkovic, N., 1973. Metallogenic map of Kerman region, 1: 500000 scale. Exploration for
ore deposits in Kerman region. Geol Surv Iran Rep, 53: 247.##
NUMERICAL SIMULATION 1. Geophysical prospecting, 40(4): 453-463.##
Sasaki, Y., 1994. 3-D resistivity inversion using the finite-element method. Geophysics, 59(12): 1839-
Sereshgi, H.A., Ganji, A., Ardalan, A.A., Torshizian, H., Taheri, J., 2019. Detection of metallic
prospects using staged factor and fractal analysis in Zouzan region, NE Iran. Iranian Journal of Earth
Sciences, 11: 256-266.##
Sultan, S.A., Mansour, S.A., Santos, F.M., Helaly, A.S., 2009. Geophysical exploration for gold and
associated minerals, case study: Wadi El Beida area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of
Geophysics and Engineering, 6(4): 345-356.##
Telford, W.M., Telford, W., Geldart, L., Sheriff, R.E., Sheriff, R., 1990. Applied geophysics, Cambridge
university press.##
Zadmehr, F., Shahrokhi, S.V., 2019. Separation of geochemical anomalies by concentration-area and
concentration-number methods in the Saqez 1:100,000 sheet, Kurdistan. Iranian Journal of Earth
Sciences 11: 196-204.##
Zhang, J., Mackie, R. L., Madden, T.R., 1995. 3-D resistivity forward modeling and inversion using
conjugate gradients. Geophysics, 60(5): 1313-1325.##