Microfacies Analysis and its Implications for Depositional Environment of Margala Hill Limestone from Khaira Gali Road Section, North Eastern Hazara, Pakistan

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, P.O. Box no. 54590 Pakistan

Abstract

Stratigraphic section of Margala Hill Limestone exposed in the Khaira Gali road section of the Hazara Basin, northwestern Himalayas has been measured, logged and sampled. The 96m thick section of Margala Hill limestone mainly consists of medium to thick bedded nodular limestone with intercalations of shale. This high resolution petrographic study of the formation has been done with an integrated approach of sedimentology, paleoecology and biostratigraphy and it mainly shows wackstone to packstone carbonate texture with different assemblages of Larger Benthonic Foraminifera e.g. (Assilina spinosa, Nummulites globulus, Ranikothalia sindensis, Nummulites mamillatus, Assilina subspinosa, Nummulites atacicus, Assilina granulosa, Operculina patalensis, Assilina laminosa, Ranikothalia nuttalli, Lockhartia conditi, Ranikothalia sahni, Lockhartia tipperi, Discocyclina dispansa, Discocyclina ranikotensis and Quinqueloculina), Bivalves and green algae. Five types of microfacies have been interpreted on the basis of carbonate texture and skeletal grains observed in thin sections. These microfacies include Rotaliids-milliolids mud-wackstone, Algal- bioclastic packstosne, Nummulitic wack-packstone, Assilinids wack-packstone and Discocyclina- Ranikothalia wack-packstone microfacies. The presence of these assemblages draws the conclusion that the deposition was occurred in closing Neo-Tethys on an inner to middle shelf environment at the northern extremity of the Indian Plate. Based on age diagnostic Foraminiferal assemblages, Ypresian, Early Eocene age has been designated to the Margala Hill Limestone.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [فارسی]

-

Author [فارسی]

  • Muhammad Armaghan Faisal Miraj
Adabi, M.H., Zohdi, A., Ghabeishavi, A., Amiri-Bakhtiyar, H., 2008. Applications of nummulitids and
other larger benthic foraminifera in depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy: an example
from the Eocene deposits in Zagros Basin, SW Iran. Facies, 54 (4): 499-512.##
Afzal, J., 2011. Evolution of larger benthic foraminifera during the Paleocene-early Eocene interval in
the east Tethys (Indus Basin, Pakistan) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester).##
Afzal, J., Williams, M., Aldridge, R.J., 2009. Revised stratigraphy of the lower Cenozoic succession of
the Greater Indus Basin in Pakistan. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 28 (1): 7-23.##
Ahsan, N., Chaudhry, M.N., 2008. Geology of Hettangian to Middle Eocene Rock of Hazara and
Kashmir Basins, northwest lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Punjab University, 43:
131-152.##
Anketell, J.M., Mriheel, I.Y., 2000. Depositional environment and diagenesis of the Eocene Jdeir
Formation, Gabes‐Tripoli basin, Western Offshore, Libya. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 23 (4):
425-447.##
Baig, M.S., 1991. Geochronology of pre-Himalayan and Himalayan tectonic events, northwest
Himalaya, Pakistan. Kashmir Journal of Geology, 8 (9): 197.##
Baig, M.S., Lawrence, R.D., Snee, L.W., 1988. Evidence for late Precambrian to early Cambrian
orogeny in northwest Himalaya, Pakistan. Geological Magazine, 125: 83-86.##
Baig, M.S., Snee, L.W., La-Fortune, R.J., 1989. Timing of the Pre-Himalayan organic events in the
Northwestern Himalaya: 40 Ar/39 Ar constraints. Kashmir Journal of Geology 6-7: 29-40.##
BouDagher-Fadel, M.K., 2012. Biostratigraphic and geological significance of planktonic foraminifera
22.##
Chaudhry, M.N., Ahsan, N., Ghazanfar, M., 1998. A Preliminary Account of Sedimentology of Hazara
Basin from Jurassic to Eocene. 13th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Workshop. Geological Bulletin
University of Peshawar, 31: 41-43.##
Cheema, A.H., 2010. Microfacies, Diagenesis and Depositional Environments of Samana Suk
Formation (Middle Jurassic) Carbonates exposed in South East Hazara and Samana Range (Doctoral
dissertation, University of the Punjab).##
Davies, L.M., Pinfold, E.S., 1937. The Eocene Beds of the Punjab Salt Range. Memoirs of the
Geological Survey of India. Palaeontologia Indica, 24: 1-79.##
Davies, L.M., 1927. The Ranikot beds at Thal (north-west frontier provinces of India). Quarterly Journal
of the Geological Society, 83(1-5): 260-290.##
DiPietro, J.A., Pogue, K.R., 2004. Tectonostratigraphic subdivisions of the Himalaya: A view from the
west. Tectonics, 23(5).##
Duppret, L., Dissler, E., Dore, F., Gresselin, F., Gall, J.E., 1990. Cadomian geodynamic evolution of
the northeastern Armorican Massif In: D’Lemos RS et al (eds) The Cadomian Orogeny. Geological
society of London, 115-131 p.##
Flugel, E., 2013. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer
Science & Business Media.##
Gansser, A., 1980. The significance of the Himalayan suture zone. Tectonophysics, 62(1-2): 37-52.
Gill, W.D., 1953. Facies and fauna in the Bhadrar beds of the Punjab Salt Range, Pakistan. Journal of
Paleontology, 824-844.##
Hodges, K.V., 2000. Tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet from two perspectives. Geological
Society of America Bulletin, 112(3): 324-350.##
Hottinger, L., 1960, Recherches sur les Alvéolines du Palécène et de l'Eocène.: Schweizerische
Palaeontologische Abhandlungen, 75-76: 1-243.##
Hottinger, L., 1983. Processes determining the distribution of larger foraminifera in space and
time. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins, 30: 239-253.##
Hottinger, L., 2009. The Paleocene and earliest Eocene foraminiferal Family Miscellaneidae: neither
nummulitids nor rotaliids. Carnets de géologie.##
Jagoutz, O., Schmidt, M.W., 2012. The formation and bulk composition of modern juvenile continental
crust: The Kohistan arc. Chemical Geology, 298: 79-96.##
Jauhri, A.K., Misra, P.K., Kishore, S., Singh, S.K., 2006. Larger foraminiferal and calcareous algal
facies in the Lakadong Formation of the South Shillong Plateau, NE India. Journal of the
Palaeontological Society of India, 51(2): 51-61.##
Jouanne, F., Awan, A., Pecher, A., Kausar, A., Mugnier, J.L., Khan, I., Khan, N.A., Van Melle, J., 2014.
Present‐day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges. Journal of
Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 119(3): 2487-2503##
Kazmi, A.H., Abbasi, I.A., 2008. Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan. Dept. &
NCE. Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, 524 p.##
Kazmi, A.H., Jan, M.Q., 1997. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan: Graphic Publishers, Karachi,
Pakistan.##
Latif, M.A., 1970. Explanatory notes on the geology of southeastern Hazara to accompany the revised
geological map. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Sonderband, 15: 5-20.##
Latif, M.A., 1976. Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of the Galis Group of Hazara,
Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Punjab University, 13: 1-64.##
Leckie, R.M., 1989. A paleoceanographic model for the early evolutionary history of planktonic
foraminifera. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 73(1-2): 107-138.##
Nagappa, Y., 1959. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Eocene succession in the India-
Pakistan-Burma region. Micropaleontology, 5(2): 145-177.##
Nuttall, W.L.F., 1926. The larger foraminifera of the Upper Ranikot Series (Lower Eocene) of Sind,
India. Geological Magazine, 63(3): 112-121.##
Paracha, W., 2004. Kohat plateau with reference to Himalayan tectonic general study. CSEG recorder.
Payros, A., Orue-Etxebarria, X., Pujalte, V., 2006. Covarying sedimentary and biotic fluctuations in
Lower-Middle Eocene Pyrenean deep-sea deposits: Palaeoenvironmental
implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 234(2-4): 258-276.##
Pecher, A., Seeber, L., Guillot, S., Jouanne, F., Kausar, A., Latif, M., Majid, A., Mahéo, G., Mugnier,
J.L., Rolland, Y., Van Der Beek, P., 2008. Stress field evolution in the northwest Himalayan syntaxis,
northern Pakistan. Tectonics, 27(6).##
Racey, A., Simon, J.B.P., 2004. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera:
applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis. Earth-Science Reviews 67: 219-265.##
Racey, A., 2001. A review of Eocene nummulite accumulations: structure, formation and reservoir
potential. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 24(1): 79-100.##
Schaub, H., 1981. Nummulites at Assilines de la Téthys paléogène: taxinomie, phylogenèse et
biostratigraphie. Atlas I:* Hans Schaub. Birkhäuser.##
Scheibner, C., Speijer, R.P., 2008. Late Paleocene-early Eocene Tethyan carbonate platform
evolution—A response to long-and short-term paleoclimatic change. Earth-Science Reviews, 90(3-
4): 71-102.##
Searle, M.P., Treloar, P.J., 2010. Was Late Cretaceous-Paleocene obduction of ophiolite complexes the
primary cause of crustal thickening and regional metamorphism in the Pakistan
Himalaya?. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 338(1): 345-359.##
Sengor, A.M.C., Altiner, D., Cin, A., Ustaomer, T., Hsu, K.J., 1988. Origin and assembly of the
Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwanaland. In: Audley-Charles MG, Hallam A
(eds) Gondwana and Tethys. Geological Society of London Special Publications 37: 81-119.##
Serra-Kiel, J., Hottinger, L., Caus, E., Drobne, K., Ferrandez, C., Jauhri, A.K., Less, G., Pavlovec, R.,
Pignatti, J., Samso, J.M., Schaub, H., 1998. Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan
Paleocene and Eocene. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 169(2): 281-299.##
Shah, S.M.I., 2009, Stratigraphy of Pakistan: Memoir Geological Survey of Pakistan, 22: 381.##
Tlig, S., Sahli, S., Er-Raioui, L., Alouani, R., Mzoughi, M., 2010. Depositional environment controls on
petroleum potential of the Eocene in the North of Tunisia. Journal of Petroleum Science and
Engineering, 71(3-4): 91-105.##
Wanamaker Jr, A.D., Hetzinger, S., Halfar, J., 2011. Reconstructing mid-to high-latitude marine climate
and ocean variability using bivalves, coralline algae, and marine sediment cores from the Northern
Hemisphere. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 302(1-2): 1-9.##
Wilson, J.L., 2012. Carbonate facies in geologic history. Springer Science & Business Media.
Zhang, Q., Willems, H., Ding, L., 2013. Evolution of the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic
foraminifera in the Tethyan Himalaya of Tibet, China. International Journal of Earth
Sciences, 102(5), 1427-1445.##