The Sedimentological Record of Upper Holocene Tsunami Event in Fengbin, Taiwan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geological Engineering, Jenderal Soedirman University, Kalimanah, Purbalingga, Indonesia

2 Graduate Institute of Applied Geology, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwa

3 Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Canada


A tsunami had struck the Ami tribe’s settlement on the eastern coast of Taiwan in 1771. The trigger of this tsunami is still debatable. Hence, the analysis of tsunami deposits in Fengbin is needed to understand the chronology of the tsunami. There are three types of sediment samples taken from the study area, namely modern beach sand, modern fluvial sand, and sediment materials from the marine terrace. Sample analysis was carried out using the point counting, granulometry, biozonation, and paleo-bathymetry methods to determine the facies, provenance, and sediment transport mechanisms. The results of field observation indicate the presence of marine shells on the sediment deposit of marine terraces at elevations between 10.5-12.5 m. The thickness of this deposit is between 15-20 cm in the fining upward succession and there is a rip-up clast sedimentary structure. The characteristic of this deposit is similar to tsunami deposits found on the Ishigaki and Miyako Islands, Japan. The conclusion of this study is that there is a tsunami deposit in Fengbin associated with the tsunami deposits found in Miyako and Ishigaki Islands, Japan. The trigger of the tsunami in Fengbin probably attributed to tectonic activity in the Ryukyu Trench.


Article Title [Persian]


Abe, Y., 1938. The research of locality names in Taiwan. Sugita Publication, 300.##
Ando, M., 1975. Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the 200 Tri Laksono et al.##
Nankai Trough, Japan. Tectonophysics, 27: 119-140.##
Ando, M., Nakamura, M., and Lin, C.H., 2013. Tsunami folklore and possible tsunami source on the eastern coast of Taiwan. Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences, 24: 951-961.##
Ando, M., Kitamura, A., Tu, Y., Ohashi, Y., Imai, T., Nakamura, M., Ikuta, R., Miyairi, Y., Yokoyama,##
Y., Shishikura, M., 2018. Source of high tsunamis along the southernmost Ryukyu trench inferred from tsunami stratigraphy. Tectonophysics, 722: 265-276.##
Biq, C.C., 1972. Transcurrent buckling, transform faulting and transpression: their relevance in eastern Taiwan kinematics. Petroleum Geology of Taiwan, 10: 1-10.##
Chen, C.S., 1988. Pliocene to Pleistocene biostratigraphical study in the Taiyuan area, Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Unpublished master thesis, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.##
Chen, C.S., Chen, W.C., Tao, W.K., 2004. Characteristics of heavy summer rainfall in southwestern
Taiwan in relation to orographic effects. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 82: 1521-1543 .##
Chen, H.F., 1984. Crustal uplift and subsidence in Taiwan: an account based upon retriangulation results. Central Geological Survey of Taiwan, 3: 129-140.##
Chen, W.S., Huang, M.T., Liu, T.K., 1991. Neotectonic significance of the Chimei fault in the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Proceedings of the Geological Society of China, 34: 43-56.##
Chen, W.S., Wang, Y., 1997. Geological map of Fengbin, scale 1/50,000. Central Geological Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan .##
Chen, Y.G., Liu, T.K., 1996. Sea-level changes in the last several thousand years, Penghu Islands, Taiwan Strait. Quaternary Research, 45: 254-262.##
Chen, Y.G., Liu, T.K., 2000. Holocene uplift and subsidence along an active tectonic margin,
southwestern Taiwan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19: 923-930.##
Chi, W.R., Namson, J., Suppe, J., 1981. Record of plate interactions in the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Petroleum Geology of Taiwan, 17: 75-87.##
Cole, R.B., Stanley, R.G., 1994. Sedimentology of subaqueous volcaniclastic sediment gravity flows in the Neogene Santa Maria Basin, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 103: 221-235.##
Dickinson, W.R., 1985. Interpreting provenance relation from detrital modes of sandstones. Reidel Publishing Company, 333-363.##
Dolozi, M.B., Ayres, L.D., 1991. Early Proterozoic, basaltic andesite tuff-breccia: downslope,
subaqueous mass transport of phreatomagmatically-generated tephra: Bulletin of Volcanology, 53: 477-495.##
Dorsey, R.J., 1985. Petrography of Neogene sandstones from the Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan, Response to arc-continent collision: Petrography of Neogene sandstones from the Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan. Petroleum Geology of Taiwan, 21: 187-216.##
Dorsey, R.J., 1992. Collapse of the Luzon volcanic arc during onset of arc-continent collision: evidence from a Miocene-Pliocene uncomformity, eastern Taiwan. Tectonics, 11: 177-191.##
Ernst, W.G., 1983. Mountain-building and metamorphism: a case history from Taiwan. Academic Press, London, 247-256.##
Falade, F., Ikponmwosa, E.E., Ojediran, N.I., 2010. Behaviour of lightweight concrete containing
periwinkle shells at elevated temperature. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 5: 379- 390.##
Fisher, R.V., and Schmincke, H.U., 1984. Pyroclastic rocks. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 427.##
Folk, R. L., Ward, W. C., 1957. Brazos river basin: A study in the significance of grain size parameter. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 27: 3-27.##
Fujiwara, O., 2008. Bedforms and sedimentary structures characterizing tsunami deposits. Tsunamiites,10: 51-62.##
Ge, X., Li, T., Zhang, S., Peng, M., 2010. What causes the extremely heavy rainfall in Taiwan during typhoon morakot (2009)?. Atmospheric Science Letter, 11: 46-50 .##
Hatta, A., Ujiie, H., 1992. Benthic foraminifera from Coral Seas between Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands, southern Ryukyu Island Arc, northwestern Pacific. Systematic descriptions of Rotaliina. Bulletin of the College of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 54: 163-287.##
Hewitt, K., 2002. Styles of rock avalanche depositional complexes conditioned by very rugged terrain, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan. Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology XV, Boulder, Colorado, 345-377.##
Ho, C.S., 1986. A synthesis of the geologic evolution of Taiwan. Tectonopysics, 125: 1-16 .##
Hsieh, M.L., 1990. Study of late Quaternary deposits, marine terraces and neotectonism of the coastal area between Hualien and Taitung. Master thesis, Institute of Geology, National Taiwan University,Taipei.##
Hsieh, M.L., Liew, P.M., Chen, H.-W., 2011. Early Holocene catastrophic mass-wasting event and fandelta development on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan. Geomorphology, 134: 378-393.##
Hsieh, M.L., Liew, P.M., Hsu, M.-Y. 2004. Holocene tectonic uplift on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan. Quarternary International, 115: 47-70.##
Hsieh, M.L., Rau, R.J., 2009. Late Holocene coseismic uplift on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan: evidence from mass mortality of intertidal organisms. Tectonophysics, 474: 595-609.##
Hsin, Y.C., Wu, C.R., Shaw, P.T., 2008. Spatial and temporal variations of the Kuroshio east of Taiwan, 1982-2005: a numerical study. Journal of Geophysical Resources, 113.##
Hsu, M.Y., Kao, C.J., Kao, P.F., Jeng, S.L., 1999. A study of coastal retreat along Huatung Coast, Hualien to Changbin section. Bulletin of Geographical Society of China, 27: 83-109.##
Hsu, T.L., 1956. Geology of the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Bulletin of Geological Survey of
Taiwan, 8: 39-63.##
Hsu, T.L., Kao, C.J., Kao, P,F., Jeng, S.L., 1998. A study of coastal retreat along Huatung Coast, Hualien to Changbin section. Bulletin of Geographical Society of China, 26: 73-98.##
Huang, T.Y., 1969. Some planktonic foraminifera from a bore at Shihshan, near Taitung, Taiwan. Proceedings Geological Society of China, 12: 103-119.##
Hunter, R.E., 1980. Depositional environments of some Pleistocene coastal terrace deposits,
southwestern Oregon-case history of a progradational beach and dune sequence. Sedimentary
Geology, 27: 241-262.##
International Society of Rock Mechanics, 1978. Committee on standardization of laboratory and field tests. Suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses. International Journal of Rock Mechanics Science and Geomechanics Abstract, 15: 319-368.##
Jahn, B.M., Liou, J.G., Nagasawara, H., 1981. High-pressure metamorphic rocks of Taiwan. REE
geochemistry, Rb-Sr ages and tectonic implications. Metamorphic Geological Society of China, 4: 497-520.##
Jian, Z., Wang, P., Saito, Y., Wang, J., Pflaumann, U., Oba, T., Cheng, X., 2000. Holocene Variability of the Kuroshio Current in the Okinawa Trough, northwest Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet Science Letter, 184: 305-319 .##
Lallemand, S., Theunissen, T., Schnurle, P., Le, C.S., Font, Y., 2013. Indentation of the Philippine Sea Plate by the Eurasia Plate in: details from recent marine seismological experiments. Tectonophysics, 594: 60-79 .##
Lallemand, S., Lehu, R., Retif, F., Hsu, S.K., Babonneau, N., Ratzov, G., 2016. A~3000 years-old sequence of extreme events revealed by marine and shore deposits east of Taiwan. Tectonophysics, 692: 325-341.##
Lau, A.Y.A., Switzer, A.D., Domincy-Howes, D., Aitchison, J.C., Zong, Y., 2010. Written records of historical tsunamis in the northeastern South China Sea challenges associated with developing a new integrated database. Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 10: 1793-1806 ##.
Lehu, R., Lallemand, S., Hsu, S.K., Lin, A.T., Ratzov, G., Babonneau, N., Dezileau, L., 2013.
Submarine paleoseismology offshore Taiwan: new insights from turbidite records. Abstract in AGU Fall Meeting.##
Lehu, R., Lallemand, S., Hsu, S.K., Babonneau, N., Ratzov, G., Lin, A., 2015. Deep-sea sedimentation offshore eastern Taiwan: facies and processes characterization. Marine Geology, 369: 1-18.##
Lehu, R., Lallemand, S., Ratzov, G., Babonneau, N., Hsu, S.K., Lin, A., 2016. An attempt to reconstruct 2700 years of seismicity using deep-sea turbidites offshore eastern Taiwan. Tectonophysics, 5: 16-34.##
Lieu. J.G., Ernst, W.G., 1984. Summary of Phanerozoic metamorphism in Taiwan. Metamorphic
Geological Society of China, 133-152.##
Liew, P.M., Hsieh, M.L., Lai, C.K., 1990. Tectonic significance of Holocene marine terraces in the
Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Tectonophysics, 183: 121-127.##
Liew, P.M., Pirazzoli, P.A., Hsieh, M.L., Arnold, M., Barusseau, J.P., Fontugne, M., 1993. Holocene tectonic uplift deduced from elevated shorelines, eastern Coastal Range of Taiwan. Tectonophysics, 202 Tri Laksono et al. 222: 55-68.##
Liu, J., Liu, C., Xu, K., Milliman, J., Chiu, J., Kao, S., Lin, S., 2008. Flux and fate of small mountainous rivers derived sediments into the Taiwan Strait. Marine Geology, 256: 65-76.##
Liu, Y.C., Yu, S.B., 1990. Vertical crustal movements in eastern Taiwan and their tectonic implications.Tectonophysics, 183: 111-120.##
Ma, K.F., Lee, M.F., 1997. Simulation of historical tsunamis in the Taiwan region. Terrestrial
Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 8: 13-30.##
Malavieille, J., Lallemand, S.E., Dominguez, S., Deschamps, A., Lu, C.Y., Liu, C.S., Schnurle, P., 2002. Arc-continent collision in Taiwan: new marine observations and tectonic evolution. Geological Society of America, 358: 187-211.##
Massari, F., Parea, G.C., 1988. Progradational gravel beach sequences in a moderate to high energy, microtidal marine environment. Sedimentology, 35: 881-913.##
Matta, N., Chen, W.S., Nishikawa, Y., Ando, M., Chung, L.H., 2013. Finding of probable tsunami
boulders on Jiupeng coast in southeastern Taiwan. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 24: 159-163.##
Morton, R.A., Gelfenbaum , G., Jaffe, B.E., 2007. Physical criteria for distinguishing sandy tsunami and storm deposits using modern examples. Sedimentary Geology, 200: 184-207.##
Nemec, W., Steel, R.J., 1984. Alluvial and coastal conglomerates: their significant features and some comments on gravelly mass-flow deposits. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologist Memoir 10, Calgary, Alberta, 1-31.##
Ota, Y., Shyu, B., Wang, C.C., Lee, H.C., Chung, L.H., Shen, C.C., 2015. Coral boulders along the coast of the Lanyu Island, offshore southeastern Taiwan, as potential paleotsunami records. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 114: 588-600.##
Postma, G., 1983. Water escape structures in the context of depositional model of a mass flow dominated conglomeratic fan-delta (Abrioja Formation, Pliocene, Almeria Basin, SE Spain). Sedimentology, 30: 91-103.##
Postuma, J., 1971. Manual of Planktonic Foraminifer. Elsevier Publishing Company, 420 .
Putra, P.S., 2018. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 118 .##
Ramsey, L.A., Hovius, N., Lague, D., Liu, C.S., 2006. Topographic characteristics of the submarine Taiwan orogen. Journal of Geophysical Resources, 111.##
Sarkar, D., Mukhopadhyay, A., Hazra, S., 2013. Characteristics of tsunami and paleo Tsunami deposits in South Andaman Island, India. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 42: 839-848 ##.
Sohn, Y.K., Kim, S.B., Hwang, I.G., Bahk, J.J., Choe, M.Y., Chough, S.K., 1997. Characteristics and depositional processes of large-scale gravelly Gilbert-type foresets in the Miocene Doumsan fan delta, Pohang Basin, SE Korea. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 67: 130-141.##
Suppe, J., 1984. Kinematics of arc-continent collision, flipping of subduction, and back-arc spreading near Taiwan. Metamorphic Geological Society of China, 6: 21-33 .##
Teng, L.S., 1979. Petrographical study of the Neogene sandstones of the Fenshuliao Formation, northern Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Acta Geology Taiwanica, 20: 129-155.##
Teng, L.S., 1990. Geotectonic evolution of the late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan.
Tectonophysics, 183: 57-76 .##
Theunissen, T., Font, Y., Lallemand, S., Liang, W.T., 2010. The largest instrumentally recorded
earthquake in Taiwan: revised location and magnitude, and tectonic significance of the 1920 event. Geophysical Journal International, 183: 1119-1133.##
Ujiie, Y., Ujiie, H., Taira, A., Nakamura, T., Oguri, K., 2003. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water in the Kuroshio source region, Pacific Ocean, over the past 21,000 years: evidence from planktonic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 49: 335-364 .##
Wang, U., Yang, C.N., Chen, W.S., 1992. Geological map of Yuli. Central Geological Survey of
Taiwan, scale 1:50,000.##
Wijaya, E., Abdurrokhim, Helmi, F., Ilmi, N.N., Sunardi, E., 2017. Lithofacies and depositional
environment of Halang Formation on part of Chikeu river section, Majalengka, North Java. Journal of Geological Sciences and Applied Geology, 2: 17-27 .##
Yamaguchi, M., Ota, Y., 2004. Tectonic interpretations of holocene marine terraces, east coast of Coastal Range, Taiwan. Quaternary International, 115: 71-81.Geopersia 2021, 11(1): 169-203 203##
Yen, T.P., Sheng, C.C., Keng, W.P., 1951. The discovery of fusuline limestone in the metamorphic complex of Taiwan. Bulletin Geological Survey of Taiwan, 3: 23-25.##
Yen, T.P., 1967. Structural analysis of the Tananao Schist of Taiwan. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Taiwan, 18: l-110.##
Yu, N.T., Yen, J.Y., Chen, W.S., Yen, I.C., Liu, J.H., 2015. Geological records of western pacific
tsunamis in northern Taiwan: AD 1867 and earlier event deposits. Marine Geology, 372: 1-16.
Zhou, Q., Adams, W.M., 1985. Tsunamigenic earthquakes in China 1831 B.C. - 1980 A.D. International Tsunami Symposium, 543-550.##