Modeling of land subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation using elastoplastic Mohr-Coulomb model in Arak plain, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of environment and renewable energies, Faculty of new sciences & technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of environment and renewable energies , Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, North Kargar Street, Tehran, Iran


In this paper, the land subsidence across Arak plain, a relatively vast plain located in central Iran, caused by groundwater level drop is calculated using Mohr-Coulomb elastoplastic model. Also, a modified finite element model is applied via Plaxis2D commercial software for validation. Five borehole stations at given locations across the Arak plain are considered, namely Gavkhaneh, Ebrahimabad, Safarabad, Amanabad, and MojedabadKohneh, and the mentioned model is applied at each borehole. The acquired results show a subsidence average value of 26.6 cm for 17.85 m of groundwater level drop along 1991-2014. Also, the lowest aggregated subsidence value until 2014 is observed at Safarabad station being 0.2 cm, while its maximum value is observed at Gavkhaneh station being 88.75 cm. The acquired results reminds the necessity of groundwater resources management measures and supervision over exploitation amounts.


Article Title [فارسی]


Abidin, Hasanuddin Z., Rochman Djaja, Dudy Darmawan, Samsul Hadi, Arifin Akbar, H.
Rajiyowiryono, Y. Sudibyo, I. Meilano, M. A. Kasuma, J. Kahar, and Cecep Subarya. 2001. “Land
Subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and Its Geodetic Monitoring System.” Natural Hazards 23(2-
Alipour, S., M. Motgah, M. A. Sharifi, and T. R. Walter. 2008. “InSAR Time Series Investigation of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Overexploitation in Tehran, Iran.” Proceedings of the 2008 2nd Workshop on USE of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring Volcanoes and Seismogenic Areas, USEReST 2008 (1):2-6.##
Aly, M. H., H. A. Zebker, J. R. Giardino, and A. G. Klein. 2009. “Permanent Scatterer Investigation of Land Subsidence in Greater Cairo, Egypt.” Geophysical Journal International 178(3):1238-45.##
Anderssohn, Jan, Hans Ulrich Wetzel, Thomas R. Walter, Mahdi Motagh, Yahya Djamour, and
Hermann Kaufmann. 2008. “Land Subsidence Pattern Controlled by Old Alpine Basement Faults in the Kashmar Valley, Northeast Iran: Results from InSAR and Levelling.” Geophysical Journal
International 174(1):287-94.##
Buckley, Sean M., Paul A. Rosen, Scott Hensley, and Byron D. Tapley. 2003. “Land Subsidence in Houston, Texas, Measured by Radar Interferometry and Constrained by Extensometers.” Journal of Geophysical Research 108(B11):2542.##
Calderhead, A. I., R. Therrien, A. Rivera, R. Martel, and J. Garfias. 2011. “Simulating Pumping-Induced Regional Land Subsidence with the Use of InSAR and Field Data in the Toluca Valley, Mexico.” Advances in Water Resources 34(1):83-97.##
Carnec, C., and H. Fabriol. 1999. “Monitoring and Modeling Land Subsidence at the Cerro Prieto
Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Using SAR Interferometry.” Geophysical Research
Letters 26(9):1211-14.##
Chai, J. C., S. L. Shen, H. H. Zhu, and X. L. Zhang. 2004. “Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Drawdown in Shanghai.” Géotechnique 54(2):143-47.##
Chaussard, Estelle, Shimon Wdowinski, Enrique Cabral-Cano, and Falk Amelung. 2014. “Land
Subsidence in Central Mexico Detected by ALOS InSAR Time-Series.” Remote Sensing of
Environment 140:94-106. Conway, Brian D. 2015. “Land Subsidence and Earth Fissures in South-Central and Southern Arizona, USA.” Hydrogeology Journal 24(3):649-55.##
Dehghani, Maryam, and Mohammad Reza Nikoo. 2019. “Monitoring and Management of Land
Subsidence Induced by Over-Exploitation of Groundwater.” Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research 48:271-96.##
Dehghani, Maryam, Mohammad Javad Valadan Zoej, Iman Entezam, Ali Mansourian, and Sassan Saatchi. 2009. “InSAR Monitoring of Progressive Land Subsidence in Neyshabour, Northeast Iran.” Geophysical Journal International 178(1):47-56.##
Dehghani, Maryam, Mohammad Javad Valadan Zoej, Andrew Hooper, Ramon F. Hanssen, Iman
Entezam, and Sassan Saatchi. 2013. “Hybrid Conventional and Persistent Scatterer SAR
Interferometry for Land Subsidence Monitoring in the Tehran Basin, Iran.” ISPRS Journal of
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 79:157-70.##
Fielding, Eric J., Ronald G. Blom, and Richard M. Goldstein. 1998. “Rapid Subsidence over Oil Fields Measured by SAR Interferometry.” Geophysical Research Letters 25(17):3215-18.##
Galloway, Devin L., and Thomas J. Burbey. 2011. “Review: Regional Land Subsidence Accompanying Groundwater Extraction.” Hydrogeology Journal 19(8):1459-86.##
Gambolati, G., and P. Teatini. 2015. “Geomechanics of Subsurface Water Withdrawal and Injection.” Water Resources Research 51(6):3922-55.##
Gambolati, Giuseppe, Pietro Teatini, Lucio Tomasi, and Marco Gonella. 1999. “Coastline Regression of the Romagna Region, Italy, Due to Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence and Sea Level Rise.” Water Resources Research 35(1):163-84.##
Ghorbanzadeh, Omid, Hashem Rostamzadeh, Thomas Blaschke, Khalil Gholaminia, and Jagannath Aryal. 2018. “A New GIS-Based Data Mining Technique Using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and k-Fold Cross-Validation Approach for Land Subsidence Susceptibility Mapping.” Natural Hazards 94(2):497-517.##
Higgins, Stephanie, Irina Overeem, Akiko Tanaka, and James P. M. Syvitski. 2013. “Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River Delta, China.” Geophysical Research Letters 40(15):3898-3902.##
Hu, R. L., Z. Q. Yue, L. C. Wang, and S. J. Wang. 2004. “Review on Current Status and Challenging Issues of Land Subsidence in China.” Engineering Geology 76(1-2):65-77.##
Jin, Wei ze, Zu jiang Luo, and Xin hui Wu. 2016. “Sensitivity Analysis of Related Parameters in
Simulation of Land Subsidence and Ground Fissures Caused by Groundwater Exploitation.” Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 75(3):1143-56.##
Karegar, Makan A., Timothy H. Dixon, and Simon E. Engelhart. 2016. “Subsidence along the Atlantic Coast of North America: Insights from GPS and Late Holocene Relative Sea Level Data.”
Geophysical Research Letters 43:3126-33.##
Kolker, Alexander S., Mead A. Allison, and Sultan Hameed. 2011. “An Evaluation of Subsidence Rates and Sea-Level Variability in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.” Geophysical Research Letters 38(21):1-6.##
Koster, Kay, Gilles Erkens, and Cor Zwanenburg. 2016. “A New Soil Mechanics Approach to Quantify and Predict Land Subsidence by Peat Compression.” Geophysical Research Letters 43(20):10,792- 10,799.##
Krejci, T., T. Koudelka, and M. Broucek. 2013. “Numerical Modelling of Moisture Transfer in Saturated and Non-Saturated Porous Media.” AIP Conference Proceedings 1558(May 2014):988-91.##
Larson, K. J., H. Başaǧaoǧlu, and M. A. Mariño. 2001. “Prediction of Optimal Safe Ground Water Yield and Land Subsidence in the Los Banos-Kettleman City Area, California, Using a Calibrated
Numerical Simulation Model.” Journal of Hydrology 242(1-2):79-102.##
Li, Changjiang, Xiaoming Tang, and Tuhua Ma. 2006. “Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou Plain, China.” Hydrogeology Journal 14(8):1652-65.##
Li, Chao, and Shao Feng Liu. 2014. “Cretaceous Anomalous Subsidence and Its Response to Dynamic Topography in the Songliao Basin, Northeast China.” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 109:86-99.##
Lubis, Ashar Muda, Toshinori Sato, Nobuhiro Tomiyama, Nobuhiro Isezaki, and Tsutomu
Yamanokuchi. 2011. “Ground Subsidence in Semarang-Indonesia Investigated by ALOS-PALSAR Satellite SAR Interferometry.” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 40(5):1079-88.##
Mahmoudpour, Masoud, Mashalah Khamehchiyan, Mohammad Reza Nikudel, and Mohammad Reza Ghassemi. 2016. “Numerical Simulation and Prediction of Regional Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in the Southwest Plain of Tehran, Iran.” Engineering Geology 201(2016):6-28.##
Marfai, Muh Aris, and Lorenz King. 2007. “Monitoring Land Subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia.” Environmental Geology 53(3):651-59.##
Motagh, Mahdi, Yahya Djamour, Thomas R. Walter, Hans Ulrich Wetzel, Jochen Zschau, and Siavash Arabi. 2007. “Land Subsidence in Mashhad Valley, Northeast Iran: Results from InSAR, Levelling and GPS.” Geophysical Journal International 168(2):518-26.#3
Ortega-Guerrer, Adrian, David L. Rudolph, and John A. Cherry. 1999. “Analysis of Long-Term Land Subsidence near Mexico City: Field Investigations and Predictive Modeling.” Water Resources Research 35(11):3327-41.##
Ortiz-Zamora, Dalia, and Adrian Ortega-Guerrero. 2010. “Evolution of Long-Term Land Subsidence near Mexico City: Review, Field Investigations, and Predictive Simulations.” Water Resources Research 46(1):1-15.##
Phien-wej, N., P. H. Giao, and P. Nutalaya. 2006. “Land Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand.”
Engineering Geology 82(4):187-201.##
Rajabi, Ali M. 2018. “A Numerical Study on Land Subsidence Due to Extensive Overexploitation of Groundwater in Aliabad Plain, Qom-Iran.” Natural Hazards 93(2):1085-1103.##
Sayyaf, M., M. Mahdavi, O. R. Barani, S. Feiznia, and B. Motamedvaziri. 2014. “Simulation of Land Subsidence Using Finite Element Method: Rafsanjan Plain Case Study.” Natural Hazards 72(2):309-22.##
Shearer, T. R. 1998. “A Numerical Model to Calculate Land Subsidence, Applied at Hangu in China.” Engineering Geology 49(2):85-93.##
Taravatrooy, Narges, Mohammad Reza Nikoo, Mojtaba Sadegh, and Mohammad Parvinnia. 2018. “A Hybrid Clustering-Fusion Methodology for Land Subsidence Estimation.” Natural Hazards 94(2):905-26.##
Teatini, P., M. Ferronato, G. Gambolati, and M. Gonella. 2006. “Groundwater Pumping and Land
Subsidence in the Emilia-Romagna Coastland, Italy: Modeling the Past Occurrence and the Future Trend.” Water Resources Research 42(1):1-19.##
Tung, Hsin, and Jyr Ching Hu. 2012. “Assessments of Serious Anthropogenic Land Subsidence in Yunlin County of Central Taiwan from 1996 to 1999 by Persistent Scatterers InSAR.”
Tectonophysics 578:126-35.##
Wöppelmann, Guy, Gonéri Le Cozannet, Marcello De Michele, Daniel Raucoules, Anny Cazenave, Manuel Garcin, Susan Hanson, Marta Marcos, and Alvaro Santamaría-Gõmez. 2013. “Is Land Subsidence Increasing the Exposure to Sea Level Rise in Alexandria, Egypt?” Geophysical Research Letters 40(12):2953-57.##
Wu, Ji Chun, Xiao Qing Shi, Shu Jun Ye, Yu Qun Xue, Yun Zhang, and Jun Yu. 2009. “Numerical
Simulation of Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Overexploitation in Su-Xi-Chang Area,
China.” Environmental Geology 57(6):1409-21.##
Xu, Han, Xin-wen Wang, Dan-ping Yan, and Liang Qiu. 2018. “Journal of Asian Earth Sciences
Subsidence Transition during the Post-Rift Stage of the Dongpu Sag , Bohai Bay Basin , NE China :##
A New Geodynamic Model.” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 158(March):186-99.##
Yang, Yong, Xian Fang Song, Fan Dong Zheng, Li Cai Liu, and Xiao Juan Qiao. 2015. “Simulation of Fully Coupled Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Hydraulic Properties in Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Pumping.” Environmental Earth Sciences 73(8):4191-99.##
Ye, Shujun, Yue Luo, Jichun Wu, Xuexin Yan, Hanmei Wang, Xun Jiao, and Pietro Teatini. 2016. “Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Land Subsidence in Shanghai, China.” Hydrogeology Geopersia 2021, 11(1): 131-151 151 Journal 24(3):695-709.##
Zhang, Yun, Jun Yu, Xulong Gong, Jichun Wu, and Zhecheng Wang. 2018. “Pumping-Induced Stress and Strain in Aquifer Systems in Wuxi, China.” Hydrogeology Journal 26(3):771-87.##
Zhou, Nianqing, Pieter A. Vermeer, Rongxiang Lou, Yiqun Tang, and Simin Jiang. 2010. “Numerical Simulation of Deep Foundation Pit Dewatering and Optimization of Controlling Land Subsidence.” Engineering Geology 114(3-4):251-60.##
Zhu, Lin, Huili Gong, Xiaojuan Li, Rong Wang, Beibei Chen, Zhenxue Dai, and Pietro Teatini. 2015. “Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal in the Northern Beijing Plain, China.”
Engineering Geology 193:243-55.##