Detection of Main Rock Type for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Mineralization Using Staged Factor and Fractal Analysis in Gazestan Iron-Apatite Deposit, Central Iran

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Gazestan magnetite-apatite deposit is located in Central Iran and Bafq region, which has been occurred in form of veins, veinlets, and small apatite lenses as well as magnetite in metasomatic rock types such as green chlorite-actinolite rock units. These rocks are situated in the carbonate-volcanic complex of Upper Precambrian-Lower Cambrian Rizo formation. In this study, staged factor analysis and Concentration-Number (C-N) fractal model were used based on core samples for determination of main rock type for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) mineralization. Hence, after normalizing the data by staged factor analysis, the target factors were determined and the factorial map was generated using the C-N fractal modeling. The results showed that the first factor of the sixth step (F1-6) is contained of the REEs with phosphorous. Afterwards, results obtained by the C-N fractal method on the F1-6 indicated that there are five populations for REEs which are compared with different lithological units by evaluation matrix. The evaluation matrix confirmed the compliance of magnetite-apatite units with the high values of mineralization factor. The REEs were accumulated in magnetite-apatite units based on highest Overall Accuracy (OA).


Article Title [Persian]

Detection of Main Rock Type for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Mineralization Using Staged Factor and Fractal Analysis in Gazestan Iron-Apatite Deposit, Central Iran

Afzal, P., Ahmadi, K., Rahbar, K., 2017. Application of fractal-wavelet analysis for separation of geochemical anomalies. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 128: 27–36.##
Afzal, P., Eskandarnejad Tehrani, M., Ghaderi, M., 2016. Delineation of supergene enrichment, hypogene and oxidation zones utilizing staged factor analysis and fractal modeling in Takht-e-Gonbad porphyry deposit, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 119–127.##
Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P., Rashidnejad Omran, N. 2011. Delineation of mineralization zones in porphyry Cu deposits by fractal concentration–volume modeling. Journal of Geochemical Exploration; 108: 220–232.##
Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Moarefvand, P., Rashidnejad Omran, N., Asadi Haroni, H., 2012. Application of power-spectrum-volume fractal method for detecting hypogene, supergene enrichment, leached and barren zones in Kahang Cu porphyry deposit, Central Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 112: 131–138.##
Afzal, P., Harati, H., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Yasrebi, A.B., 2013. Application of spectrum–area fractal model to identify of geochemical anomalies based on soil data in Kahang porphyry-type Cu deposit, Iran. Chem. Journal of Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry. 73: 533–543.##
Afzal, P., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P., 2010. Geochemical anomaly separation by multifractal modeling in Kahang (Gor Gor)porphyry system, Central Iran, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 34–46.##
Afzal, P., Mirzaei, M., Yousefi, M., 2016. Delineation of geochemical anomalies based on stream sediment data utilizing fractal modeling and staged factor analysis. Journal of African Earth Sciences.##
Afzali, S., Nezafati, N., Ghaderi, M., 2012. “The Study of Fluid Shortcuts and Stable Isotope of Magnetite-Apatite of Gazestan Deposit in Central Iran.” Journal of Geosciences. 101: 35-45.##
Carranza, E.J.M., 2011. Analysis and mapping of geochemical anomalies using logratio-transformed stream sediment data with censored values. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 110: 167-185.##
Chandrajith, R., Dissanayake, C.B., Tobschall, H.J., 2001. Application of multi-element relationships in stream sediments to mineral exploration: a case study of Walawe Ganga Basin, Sri Lanka. Journal of Applied Geochemistry.16: 339–350.##
Cheng, Q, Agterberg F.P., Ballantyne, S.B., 1994. The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 51:109–130.##
Cheng, Q., Xu, Y., Grunsky, E., 2000. Integrated spatial and spectrum method for geochemical anomaly separation.Natural Resources Research, 9: 43-51.##
Davis, J.C., 2002. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, 3th ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York. 638 p.##

Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, A.A., Kohsary, A.H., 2017. Identifying Rare Earth Elements and Thorium and Uranium in Iron Oxide–Apatite Deposit of Gazestan Bafgh, Southeast of Iran. Journal of Mining Science, 161-175.##
Deng, J., Wang, Q., Yang, L., Wang, Y., Gong, Q., Liu, H., 2010. Delineation and explanation of geochemical anomalies using fractal models in the Heqing area, Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 105: 95–105.##
Emsbo, P., McLaughlin, P.I., Breit, G.N., du Bray, E.A., Koenig, A.E., 2015. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: solution to the global REE crisis? Journal of Gondwana Research.Final Report on Advanced Exploration in Mining Area of Gazestan. Parsi Kan Kav Engineering Company. 2015.##
Ghezelbash, R., Maghsoudi, A., 2018. Comparison of U-spatial statistics and C–A fractal models for delineating anomaly 98 Soltani et al. Geopersia, 10 (1), 2020##
patterns of porphyry-type Cu geochemical signatures in the Varzaghan district, NW Iran. Journal of Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 350(4): 180-191.##
Gholami, R., Moradzadeh, A., Yousefi, M., 2012. Assessing the performance of independent component analysis in remote sensing data processing. J. Indian Soc.Remote Sens. 40: 577–588.##
Hassanpour, Sh., Afzal, P., 2013. Application of concentration–number (C–N) multifractal modeling for geochemical anomaly separation in Haftcheshmeh porphyry system, NW Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences.##
Hawkes, R., Webb, H. 1979. Geochemistry in mineral exploration, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, 657 p.##
Hellman, P. L., Duncan, R. K., 2014. Evaluation of rare earth element deposits. Applied Earth Science.##
Humphries, M., 2011. Rare earth elements: The global supply chain, Specialist in energy policy, Congressional research service.##
Helvoort, P., J., V., Filzmoser, P., Van Gaans, P.F.M., 2005. Sequential factor analysis as a new approach to multivariate analysis of heterogeneous geochemical datasets: an application to a bulk chemical characterization of fluvial deposits (Rhine–Meuse delta, The Netherlands). Applied Geochemistry. 20: 2233–2251.##
Jha, A., 2014. Rare Earth Materials: Properties and Applications. CRC Press.##
Johnson, R.A., Wichern, D.W., 2002. Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.##
Kaiser, H.F., 1958. The varimax criteria for analytical rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika 23: 187–200.##
Krumbein, W.C., Graybill, F.A., 1965. An Introduction to Statistical Models in Geology. McGraw-Hill,##
Laznicka, P., 2005. Giant Metallic Deposits Future Sources of Industrial Metals. SpringerVerlag. 732 pp.##
Li, C., Ma, T., Shi, J., 2003. Application of a fractal method relating concentrations and distances for separation of geochemical anomalies from background. Journal of Geochemical Exploration.77: 167–175.##
Madani Esfahani, N., Asghari, O., 2013. Fault Detection in 3-D by Sequential Gaussian Simulation of Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Case Study: Gazestan Phosphate Ore Deposit (Central Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 6(10): 3737–3747.##
Mandelbrot, B.B., 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. W. H. Freeman, San Fransisco. 468 p.
Mikhailova, Julia A., Kalashnikov, Andrey O., 2016. 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex (Russia). Miner Deposita. 51: 131–149.##
Mokhtari, A.R., Roshani Rodsari, P., Fatehi, M., Shahrestani, Sh., Pournik, P., 2014. Geochemical prospecting for Cu mineralization in an arid terrain-central Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences 100: 278-288. New York.##
Mokhtari, A.R., 2015. Posht-e-Badam Metallogenic Block (Central Iran): A suitable zone for
REE mineralization, Central European Geology, 58 (3): 199–216.##
Paola Petrosino, P., Sadeghi, M., Albanese, S., Andersson, M., 2013. REE contents in solid sample media and stream water from different geological contexts: Comparison between Italy and Sweden. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 133: 176–201.##
Rahimi E., Maghsoudi A., Hezarkhani, A., 2016. Geochemical investigation and statistical analysis on rare earth elements in Lakehsiyah deposit, Bafq district. Journal of African Earth Scinences.##
Reimann, C., Filzmoser, P., Garrett, R.G., 2002. Factor analysis applied to regional geochemical data: 301 problems and possibilities. Applied geochemistry. 17: 185–206.##
Sadeghi, M., Morris, G. A., Carranza, E. J. M., Ladenberger, A., Andersson, M., 2013. Rare earth element distribution and mineralization in Sweden: An application of principal component analysis to FOREGS soil geochemistry. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 133: 160–175.##
Sarparandeh, M., Hezarkhani, A, 2017. Studying distribution of rare earth elements by classifiers, Se-Chahun iron ore, Central Iran. Acta Geochimica. 36(2): 232–239##
Sepehrirad, R., Alirezaei, S., Azimzadeh A.M., 2018. Hydrothermal alteration in the Gazestan iron ore deposit; comparison to other Kiruna-type iron deposits in Central Iran, Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran. 27 (108): 257-268.##
Simandl, G., 2014. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources Mineral. Deposita, 49:889–904.##
Tripathi, V.S., 1979. Factor analysis in geochemical exploration. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 11: 263–275.##
Yasrebi, A.B., Afzal, P., Wetherelt, A., Foster, P., Esfahanipour, R., 2013. Correlation between Geological and Concentration-Volume Fractal Models for Cu and Mo Mineralised Zones Separation in Kahang Porphyry Deposit,Central Iran. Geologica Carpathica 64 (2): 153—163.##
Yousefi, M., Kamkar-Rouhani, A., Carranza, E.J.M., 2012. Geochemical mineralization probability index (GMPI): A new approach to generate enhanced stream sediment geochemical evidential map for increasing probability of success in mineral potential mapping. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 115: 24–35.##
Yousefi, M., Kamkar-Rouhani, A., Carranza, E.J.M., 2014. Application of staged factor analysis and logistic function to create a fuzzy stream sediment geochemical evidence layer for mineral prospectivity mapping. Geochemistry: Detection of Main Rock Type for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Mineralization … 99 Exploration, Environmental, Analysis. 14: 45-58.##
Zaremotlagh, S., Hezarkhani, A., 2016. A geochemical modeling to predict the different concentrations of REE and their hidden patterns using several supervised learning methods: Choghart iron deposit, bafq, Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 165: 35–48.##