Gaseous Reservoir Horizons Determination via Vp/Vs and Q-Factor Data, Kangan-Dalan Formations, in One of SW Iranian hydrocarbon Fields

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences,Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

3 Geophysics-Seismic Exploration, Well logging NIDC, Ahvaz


An important method in oil and gas exploration is vertical seismic profile (VSP) to estimate rock properties in drilling well. Quality factor is also the crucial point of seismic attenuate in VSP data. In the present study, this factor was used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of Kangan Formation in one of the Persian Gulf oil fields using VSP zero offset method. Quality factor was estimated using VSP spectral ratio method. Density and porosity logs are also used to determine lithology and reservoir fluid types. Analysing Vp/Vs ratio changes is a useful tool to detect hydrocarbon accumulation. These points marked by high amplitude energy in seismograms in correlation with petrophysical logs. According to Vp/Vs plots and geological logs of the field revealed that Vp/Vs ratio is increased at depths indicating hydrocarbon presence. Data are showing good correlation to petrophysical logs. Therefore, VSP method can be applied as a suitable alternative method to find hydrocarbon reserves in those boreholes without petrophysical logs.


Article Title [Persian]


Becker, D.F., Perelberg, A.I., 1986. Seismic detection of subsurface fractures. Expanded Abstracts, 56th Ann.Int.SEG Meeting, Houston, 466–468.##

Ben-Hadj-Ali, H., Operto, S., Virieux, J., 2008. Velocity model building by 3d frequency-domain, full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data. Geophysics,73:WE101-117.##

Bettinelli, P., Puech, J.C., 2015. New method of Q-factor estimation applied to optical fiber VSP data. Society of Exploration Geophysics (SEG)-2015-5800169, 015 SEG Annual Meeting, 18-23 October, New Orleans, Louisiana, 5P.##

Bigdeli Tabar, M., Shams Shamsabad Farahani, S., Nikzad, M., Ghasemi Naraghi, M., 2012. A study of relations between velocity ratio and seismic quality factors ratio. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(1): 48-53.##

Blackburn, J., Daniels, J., Dingwall, S., Hampden-Smith, G., Leaney, S., Calvez, J.L., Nutt, L., Menkiti, H., Sanchez, A., Schinelli, M., 2007. Borehole seismic surveys: Beyond the vertical profile, Oil filed Review, Autumn 2007, 20-35##

 Brewer, R.J., 2000. VSP Data in Comparison to Other Borehole Seismic Data, Halliburton Energy Services, Houston.##

Brewer, R.J., 2002. VSP data in comparison to the check shot velocity survey, VSP Survey Meets Accuracy Demands, or “Additional Computed Product Utility, March, 2000, in AAPG Explorer, 7P.##

Bulant, P., Klimeš, L., 2008. Comparison of VSP and sonic-log data in non- vertical wells in a heterogeneous structure. Geophysics, 73 (4): U19–U25.##

Calderón-Macias, C., Ortiz-Osornio, M., Ramos-Martinez, J., 2004. Estimation of quality factors from converted-wave PS data: 74rd Ann. SEG Mtg., Expanded Abstracts, paper MC1.7.##

Christie, P., Dodds, K., Ireson, D., Johnston, L. (S.), Rutherford, J., Schaffner, J., Smith, N., 1995. Borehole seismic data sharpen the reservoir image. Oilfield Review, Winter 1995, 18-31.##

Corrigan, D., Justice, M.G., Neitzel, E.B., 1987. Estimate of shear wave anisotropy using multicomponent seismic data (abstract). Geophysics, 52:710.##

Crampin, S., 1984. Evaluation of anisotropy by shear wave splitting: Applied seismic anisotropy: Theory, background, and field studies. Geophysics Reprint series, 20: 23-33.##

Daley, T.M., Feighner, M.A., Majer, E.L., 2000. Monitoring underground gas storage in a fractured reservoir using time lapse VSP, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report LBNL-44876, Berkeley, CA, March, 129P.##

Daley, T.M., McEvilly, T.V., Majer, E., 1988. Analysis of P and S wave vertical seismic profile data from the Salton Sea scientific drilling project. J. Geoph. Res., 93: B11, P. 13025-13036.##

Dobrin, M. B., Savit, C.H., 1988. Introduction to geophysical prospecting. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 300-303.##

Feighner, M.A., Gritto, R., Daley, T.M., Keers, H., Majer, E.L., 1999, Three-dimensional seismic imaging of the Ryepatch geothermal reservoir, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 45P.##

Haase, A.B., Stewart, R.R., 2004. Estimating seismic attenuation (Q) from VSP data at a heavy-oil field: Ross Lake, Sask. CREWES Research Report, 16: 7P.##

Haase, A.B., Stewart, R.R., 2005. Q-factor estimation. CREWES Research Report, 17: 10P##

Hackert, C., Parra, J.O., 2002. Calibrating well logs to VSP attenuates, interval velocity and amplitude, The Leading Edge, 21: 52-57.##

Haidar, A., 2008. On the parallel scalability of hybrid linear solvers for large 3D problems. PhD Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse - CERFACS TH/PA/08/57.##

Haldorsen, J.B.U., Miller, D.E., Walsh, J.J., 1995. Walk-away VSP using drill noise as a source, Geophysics, 60(4): 978-997.##

Hardage, B., 2000. Vertical seismic profiling. Third Edition of Handbook of Geophysical Exploration.Pergamon. 570P.##

Hardage, B.A., 1983. Vertical seismic profiling-Part A: Principles, Geophysical Press, London,##

He, R., Hornby, B., and G. Schuster (2006) 3D wave-equation interferometric migration of VSP multiples, SEG/New Orleans 2006 Annual Meeting, P.3442-3446.##

Hinds, R., Anderson, N., Kuzmiski, R., 2002. VSP interpretative processing: Theory and practice. SEG open file publications No.3.##

Kearey, P., Brooks, M., Hill, I., 2002. An introduction to geophysical exploration. Blackwell Publishing.##

Keehn, N.A., Kanasewich, E.R., 1987. Attenuation from VSP data collected on Mellville Island. J. Canad. Soci. EXPL. Geoph. 23 (1): 73-84.##

Kennett, P., Ireson, R.L., Conn, P.J., 1980. Vertical seismic profiles: Their applications in exploration geophysics. Geophys. Prospecting, 28: 676- 699.##

Koskulics, J., Englehardt, S., Long, S., Hu, Y., Stamnes, K., 2012. Method of surface topography retrieval by direct solution of sparse weighted seminormal equations. Optic Express, 20 (2): 1714-1726.##

Kreona, A., 2012. Processing and analysis of Vertical Seismic Profile data acquired while drilling (VSP-WD). Master's thesis in Petroleum Geosciences engineering, University of Stavanger, Norway.##

Kumar, G.; Batzle, M., Hofmann, R., 2003. Effect of fluids on attenuation of elastic waves. 73rd Ann. Internat. Mtg. Soc. of Expl.Geophys, 1592-1595.##

Li, F., Zhou, H., Jiang, N., Bi, J., Marfurt, K. J., 2015. Q estimation from reflection seismic data for hydrocarbon detection using a modified frequency shift method. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 12 (4): 577- 586, doi: 10.1088/1742-2132/12/4/577.##

Lorenzo, C., Soto, J., Palma, H., Diez, H., Pérez, H., 2015. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) in injection well AZ- 03, Los Azufres geothermal field, México. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 19- 25 April, 10P.##

Majer, E. L., McEvilly, T. V., Eastwood, F., Myer, L., 1988. Fracture detection using P-wave and S-wave vertical seismic profiling at the Geysers. Geophysics, 53: 76-84.##

Marques, J.J., Novelino, V., Guerra, R., Galaguza, M., Costa, M., 2011. VSP survey assists in the reservoir characterization of deep – water turbiditic reservoir offshore Brazil. 12th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, SBGF, 4P.##

Milkereit, B., Adam, E., Li, z., Qian, W., Bohlen, T., Banerjee, D., Schmitt, D.R., 2005. Multi-offset vertical seismic profiling: an experiment to assess petrophysical-scale parameters at the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well. in: Scientific results from the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada , edited by S. R. Dallimore and T. S. Collett, Bull. Geol. Surv. Can. 585, 13 pp.##

Milsom, J., 2003. Field Geohysics. Third edition John Wiley & Sons Ltd. University College London.  England.##

Miong, S.K., Stewart, R.R., Wong, G., 2007. Shallow VSP for near-surface structure and statics, extended abstract prepared in conjunction with a presentation given at CSPG/CSEG 2007 Geo Convention, Calgary, AB, Canada, May 14-17, 7P.##

Mohamed, A.R.S., Susilo, A., Maryanto, S., 2013. Analysis of zero offset vertical seismic profiling data processing to evaluate the oil and gas reservoir in Well “X”, Murzuk Basin, Soutwest Libya. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), 2 (11): 19-29.##

Mokhtari, M., Pourhossein, H., 2003. Significance of VSP data for surface seismic data; south Ghashu Gas Field, South Iran.  Iranian Int. J. Sci., 4(2): 223-240.##

Moore, G.F., Shipley, T.H., Stoffa, P.L., Karig, D.E., Taira, A., Kuramoto, S., Tokuyama, H., Suyehiro, K., 1990.##

Structure of the Nankai Trough accretionary zone from multichannel seismic reflection data. J. Geophys. Res., 95: 8753- 8765.##

Moore, G.F., Zhao, Z., Shipley, T.H., 1997.  Integration of vertical seismic profiling, logging, and seismic data in the vicinity of the decollement, Northern Barbados ridge accretionary prism, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 156.##

Nazarchuk, Z., Skalskyi, V., and Serhiyenko, O., 2017.  Acoustic Emission, Foundations of Engineering Mechanics, Springer International Publishing AG. 283P. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-49350-3.##

Nichols, J., Mikesell, D., van Wijk, K., 2010. Application of the virtual refraction to near-surface characterization at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers (EAGE), extended abstract presented in 71th EAGE Conference & Exhibition Incorporating SPE EU-ROPEC 2009, 8–11 June 2009 in Amsterdam, Geophysical Prospecting, P. 1–11##

Nihei, K. T., Li, X., 2007. Frequency response modelling of seismic waves using finite difference time domain with phase sensitive detection (TD-PSD). Geophysical Journal International, 169: 1069-1078.##

Oliveira, F.S., Figueiredo, J.S., Oliveira, A.G., 2015. Quality factor estimation based on the frequency shift method and re-datuming operator: Application on real dataset, 2015 SEG Annual Meeting, 18-23 October, New Orleans, Louisiana, SEG-2015-5905344, 6P.##

Oristaglio, L., 1985. A guide to the current uses of vertical seismic profiles. Geophysics, 50: 2473-2479.##

Plessix, R. E., 2009. Three-dimensional frequency-domain full-waveform inversion with an iterative solver. Geophysics, 74: WCC149-WCC157.##

Pride, S. R., Berryman, J.C., Harris, J.M., 2004. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow. J. Geophys. Res., 109: B0120l, 19P.##

Pride, S.R., Berryman, J.G., 2003. Linear Dynamics of Double-Porosity Dual Permeability Materials II, Fluid Transport Equations. Phys. Rev. E., 68: 036604.##

Quan, Y., Harris, J. M., 1997. Seismic attenuation tomography using the frequency shift method.  Geophysics, 62 (3): 895-905.##

Richardson, S.E., Lawton, D.C., 2003. Zero-offset vertical seismic profiles of coalbed methane strata: a comparison of three vibrating sources. CREWES Research Report, 15: 12P.##

Sakai, A., 1999. Velocity analysis of vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey at JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well, and related problems for estimating gas hydrate concentration, in Scientific Results from APEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 Gas Hydrate Research Well, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, edited by S. R. Dallimore, T. Uchida, and T. S. Collett, Bull. Geol. Surv. Can. 544 , 323– 340.##

Samieh, J., Ghasem Al Askari, M.K., 2010. Estimation of seismic quality factor using VSP data. J. of the Earth, winter, 4 (4): 67-75.##

Schlumberger (2014) Diagram of VSP configurations, Retrieved 4 August 2014.##

Schuster, G. T., Followill, F., Katz, L.J., Yu, J., Liu, Z., 2004. Autocorrelo- gram migration: Theory. Geophysics, 68: 1685–1694.##

Sengel, E.W., 1981. Handbook on well logging. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Institute for Energy Development. 168 p. ISBN 0-89419-112-8.##

Sheriff, R. E., Geldart, L.P., 2002. Encyclopedia dictionary of applied geophysics. Fourth Edition Geophysical References series, 13:429P.DOI: 10.1190/1.9781560801979.##

Shipley, T.H., Moore, G.F., 1986. Sediment accretion, subduction, and dewatering at the base of the trench slope off Costa Rica: A seismic reflection view of the décollement. J. Geophys. Res., 91:2019- 2028.##

Shipley, T.H., Moore, G.F., Bangs, N.L., Moore, J.C., Stoffa, P.L., 1994. Seismically inferred dilatancy distribution, northern Barbados Ridge décollement: implications for fluid migration and fault strength. Geology, 22:411- 414.##

Sirgue, L., Etgen, J. T., Albertin, U., 2008. 3D Frequency Domain Waveform Inversion using Time Domain Finite Di_erence Methods. In: Proceedings 70th EAGE, Conference and Exhibition, Roma, Italy, F022.##

Smithyman, B.R., Peters, B., Herrmann, F.J., 2015. Constrained waveform inversion of colocated VSP and surface seismic data, 77th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, IFEMA Conference, Madrid, 1-4 June, 5P.##

Society of Professional Well Log Analysts, 1975. Glossary of terms & expressions used in well logging. Houston, Texas: SPWLA, 74 p.##

Sourbier, F., Haiddar, A., Giraud, L., Ben-Hadj-Ali, H., Operto, S., Virieux, J., 2011. Three-dimensional parallel frequency-domain visco-acoustic wave modeling based on a hybrid direct/iterative solver. Geophysical Prospecting, 59(5): 834-856.##

Stewart, R.R., Huddleston, P.D., Tze Kong, K., 1984. Seismic versus sonic velocities: A vertical seismic profiling study. Geophysics, 49: 1153-1168.##

Trice, R., 2014. Basement exploration, West of Shetlands: progress in opening a new play on the UKCS. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 397: 81-105.##

Uyanik, O., 2010. Compressional and shear-wave velocity measurements in unconsolidated top-soil and comparison of the results. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 5 (7): 1034-1039.##

Vasconcelos, I., Snieder, R., Hornby, B., 2008. Imaging internal multiples from subsalt VSP data — Examples of target-oriented interferometry. Geophysics, 73 (4): S157–S168.##

Westbrook, G.K., 1991. Geophysical evidence for the role of fluids in accretionary wedge tectonics. Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 335:227- 242.##

Winkler, K. W., Nur, A., 1982. Seismic attenuation - Effects of pore fluids and frictional sliding. Geophysics, 47: 1–15.##

Wu, B., Lawton, D.C., Hall, K.W., 2015. Analysis of multicomponent walkaway vertical seismic profile data, Geo Convention, 4-8 May 2015, Calgary, Canada, 4P.##

Yang, C., 2010. Time-lapse analysis of borehole and surface seismic data, and reservoir characterization of the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany. PhD Thesis, Uppsala University, 72P.##

Zhang, C., Ulrych, T. J., 2002. Estimation of quality factors from CMP records. Geophysics, 67: 1542–1547, doi: 10.1190/1.1512799.##

Zhang, Z., 2010. Assessing attenuation, fractures, and anisotropy using logs, vertical seismic profile, and three-component seismic data: heavy oilfield and potash mining examples.  PhD Thesis, Department of Geoscience, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 234P.##

Zhang, Z., Stwart, R., 2007. VSP Analysis at the Ross Lake Oilfield, Saskatchewan. CSPG CSEG Convention.##

Zhao, Y., Li, Z., Nie, Y., 2016. A Time-Frequency Analysis Method for Low Frequency Oscillation Signals Using Resonance-Based Sparse Signal Decomposition and a Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform. Energies, 9, (151): 18P. Doi: 10.3390/en9030151,##

Zimmerman, L. J., Chen, S.T., 1993. Comparison of vertical seismic profiling techniques. Geophysics, 58 (1): 134-140.##