The “South Gondwana Fauna” in the Jurassic – an example of the utility of marine Ostracods for palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographic researches

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Geology, Khorramabad Branch , Islamic Azad University,Khorramabad, Iran.


The present article is a review of a palaeobiogeographic analysis of Jurassic Ostracods from East Africa, India and Madagascar and includes also some general remarks on palaeobiogeography, biodiversity and Ostracod ecology.The palaeobiogeographic study shows the high significance of this microfossil group for the reconstruction of palaeogeographic processes, particularly plate tectonic developments and sea level changes. The “South Gondwana Fauna” (SGF) was established in the early Middle Jurassic in a shallow marine rift basin between Madagascar, India and East Africa (Gulf of Madagascar) which was a result of early rifting processes between East- and West Gondwana. The maximum diversity of this fauna was reached during the late Middle Jurassic due to geographic expansion of the basin caused by successive rifting and rising sea level. The strong endemic character of the fauna was related to the peripheral geographic position of the Gulf of Madagascar at the southern Tethyan margin. In the late Middle and Upper Jurassic the SGF shows a biogeographic separation between East Africa and Madagascar/India and increasing endemism which may be affected by a deepening of the gulf and/or by the appearance of other environmental migration barriers between these areas.


Article Title [Persian]

فونای جنوب گندوانا ،مثالی ازکاربرد استراکدهای دریایی برای بررسی های پالئوبیوژئوگرفی و پالئوژئوگرافی

Author [Persian]

  • پروانه روزبهانی
Abstract [Persian]

مقاله حاضر به بررسی  وتجزیه و تحلیل پالئوبیوژئوگرافی استراکدهای ژوراسیک شرق آفریقا ، هندوستان و ماداگاسکار پرداخته ، نکات کلی را در خصوص تنوع زیستی، اکولوژی و پالئوبیوژئوگرافی آنها دربرمی گیرد. مطالعات پالئو بیوژئوگرافی صورت گرفته ،اهمیت بالای این گروه ریزسنگواره  را دربازسازی فرایندهای جغرافیای گذشته زمین  به ویژه توسعه پلیت تکتونیک و تغییرات سطح آب دریا نشان می دهد. بر اساس مطالعات صورت گرفته ،فونای جنوب گندوانا در اغاز ژوراسیک میانی در یک حوضه دریایی کم عمق که منتج شده از فرایندهای ریفتینگ بین شرق و غرب گندوانا ست، بین ماداگاسکار، هندوستان و شرق آفریقا (خلیج ماداگاسکار) برجای گذاشته شده اند .ماکزیمم تنوع این فونا با توجه به گسترش جغرافیایی حوضه که ناشی از ریفتینگ های پی درپی و افزایش سطح اب دریاست به پایان ژوراسیک میانی مربوط می شود و ویژگی بومی شاخص این فونا نیز به موقعیت جغرافیایی محیطی خلیج ماداگاسکار که در حاشیه تتیس جنوبی قرار دارد مربوط است. در انتهای ژوراسیک میانی ژوراسیک پایانی هم، فونای جنوب گندوانا یک جدایش زیست جغرافیایی را بین شرق افریقا ،هندوستان و ماداگاسکار همراه با افزایش بومزادی که احتمالاً متاثر از تعمیق خلیج وظهور سایر موانع مهاجرت زیست محیطی بین این مناطق است نشان می دهد .

Keywords [Persian]

  • پالئوبیوژئوگرافی
  • پالئوژئوگرافی
  • ژوراسیک
  • استراکد
  • گندوانا
  • پلیت تکتونیک
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  • Receive Date: 18 June 2016
  • Revise Date: 18 September 2016
  • Accept Date: 19 September 2016
  • First Publish Date: 19 September 2016