Equilibrium-Line Altitudes of Late Quaternary Glaciers in the Zardkuh Mountain, Iran

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Ministry of Energy, Isfahan Regional Water Company, Isfahan, Iran

2 Geographic Sciences and Planning Faculty, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) of former glaciers in the Zardkuh Mountain of the Zagros Mountain Range were reconstructed from glacial-geologic data on former ice limits by using various methods. In the study area various types of glacial landforms such as outwash fans, moraines and well developed glacial cirques are observed. The results suggest that ELA were depressed 1433 m below to present ELA (3067 m asl) during the maximum glacier extension. By comparison of the calculated ELA depressions (DELAs) and the amount of the ELA depression around the world, maximum glacier extension in Zardkuh was correlated with Last Glacial Maximum. The ELAs and DELAs related to youngest moraines in the study area were about 3800 and 700 m asl, respectively. The calculated DELAs are more comparable to the latest phases of Late Glaciations or first phases of Neo-glaciations. The study showed that the depression of the annual temperature during the LGM glaciations was about 9.74°C and it was about 4.76 °C probably during the youngest glaciation stage. This study shows that the former glaciers in maximum extension were mostly firn-basin glacier with valley glacier tongue which their tongues had reached to elevation about 2400 m above present sea level, during the LGM.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

بازسازی خط تعادل یخچالهای کواترنر پایانی در ارتفاعات زردکوه

Authors [Persian]

  • بابک ابراهیمی 1
  • عبداله سیف 2
Abstract [Persian]

ارتفاع خط تعادل یخچالی (ELAs) یخچال‌های دیرینه در کوهستان زردکوه بر اساس داده‌های زمین‌شناسی – یخچالی که نشان‌دهنده محدوده یخ‌های دیرینه می‌باشد و طبق چند روش بازسازی‌شده است. در محدوده مطالعاتی انواع لندفرم های یخچالی مانند مخروط‌های یخرفتی، مورن ها و چندین سیرک یخچالی خوب توسعه‌یافته مشاهده‌شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داده است که در طول دوره گسترش حداکثری یخچال‌ها، خط تعادل یخچالی نسبت به تراز فعلی خط تعادل یخچالی (3067 متر از سطح دریا) 1433 متر افت داشته است. مقایسه این مقدار افت و مقدار افت خط تعادل یخچالی (DELAs) دیگر نقاط دنیا نشان داده است که حداکثر میزان توسعه یخچالی در این منطقه می‌تواند قابل تطابق با دوره آخرین یخچال حداکثر (LGM) باشد. مقادیر ELAs و DELAs مرتبط با جوان‌ترین مورن های شناسایی‌شده در منطقه به ترتیب 3800 و 700 متر از سطح دریا بوده است. این مقادیر تطابق بیشتری با فازهای انتهائی دوره یخچالی پسین و یا فازهای ابتدایی دوره یخچالی جدید دارد. این مطالعه نشان داده است که افت دمای متوسط سالیانه در طول LGM حدود 74/9 درجه سانتی‌گراد و احتمالاً 76/4 درجه سانتی‌گراد در طول دوره‌های جوان‌تر یخچالی بوده است. همچنین نشان داده‌شده که یخچال‌های منطقه در زمان حداکثر توسعه (LGM) عمدتاً دارای یک حوضه برف‌گیر با زبانه‌های یخچالی دره‌ای بوده و زبانه‌های آن‌ها تا تراز 2400 متری نسبت به تراز فعلی دریاها امتداد داشته است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آخرین یخچال حداکثر
  • افت خط تعادل یخچالی
  • زردکوه
  • زاگرس
  • ایران
Barr, I.D., Lovell, H., 2014. A review of topographic controls on moraine distribution. Geomorphology. 226: 44–64.

Barr, I.D., Spagnolo, M., 2015. Glacial cirques as palaeoenvironmental indicators: Their potential and limitations. Earth Science Reviews, 151: 48–78.

Benn, D.I., Evans, D.J.A., 1998. Glaciers and Glaciation. Edward Arnold, London: 734 pp.

Benn, D.I., Gemmel, A.M.D., 1997. Calculating equilibrium-line altitudes of former glaciers by the balance ratio method: a new computer spreadsheet. Glacial Geology and Geomorphol‌ogy, http://ggg.qub.ac.uk/ggg/.

Benn, D.I., Lehmkuhl, F., 2000. Mass balance and equilibrium line altitudes of glaciers in high mountain environments. Quaternary Inter-national. 65/66: 15–29.

Bobek, H., 1937. Die Rolle der Eiszeit in Nordwestiran. Z. Gletscherkd:  25: 130–183.

Bobek, H., 1963. Nature and implications of Quaternary climatic changes in Iran. Changes of Climate 20: 403-413.

Clark,  P.U., Dyke, A.S., Shakun, J.D., Carlson,  A.E., Clark,  J., Wohlfarth, B., Mitrovica, J.X., Hostetler, S.W.,  Mc Cabe, A.M., 2009. The Last Glacial Maximum. Science 325 (5941): 710–4. Bibcode: 2009Sci. 325.710 C. doi: 10.1126/science.1172873. PMID 19661421.

Dahl, S.O., Nesje, A., 1992. Paleoclimatic implications based on equilibrium-line altitude depressions of reconstructed Younger Dryas and Holocene cirque glaciers in inner Nordfjord, western Norway. Palaeo-geography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 94: 87-97.

Desio, A., 1934. Sull'esistenza di piccoli ghiacciai nella Persia occidentale [Concerning the existence of small glaciers in western Persia]. Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italianao, 14: 39-52.

Dresch, J., 1982. A propos des glaciers rocheux en pays Mediteraneen aride. recherches geographiques a strasbourg, Strasbourg No. 16-17.

Dyke, A.S., Andrews, J.T., Clark, P.U., England, J.H.,  Miller, G.H., Shaw, J., Veillette, J.J. 2002. The Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21: 1–3, 9–31.

Ebrahimi, B. 2015. Investigation and Analysis of Late Quaternary Glacial Landforms in Zagros Mountain, Iran. Ph.D. thesis. University of Isfahan, IRAN.

Falcon, N.L. 1974. Southern Iran: Zagros Mountains, in A. M. Spencer, ed., Mesozoic-Cenozoic Orogenic Belts. Data for Orogenic Studies: v. 4, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, p. 199-211

Flint, R.F., 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto, John wiley and sons Inc., 892 pp.

Frenzel, B., Pecsi, M., Velichko, A.A. 1992. Adas of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of the Northern Hemisphere, Late Pleistocene - Holocene. Stuttgart.

Furbish, D.J., Andrews, J.T., 1984. The use of hypsometry to indicate longterm stability and response of valley glaciers to changes in mass transfer. Journal of Glaciology, 30: 199–211.

Gross, G., Kerschner, H., Patzelt, G., 1976. Metodische Untersuchungen über die Schneegrenze in alpinen Gletscher‌gebieten. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 12:  223–251.

Hagedoran, H., Haars, W., Busche, D., 1975. Pleistozane vergletscherungsspuren in zentral Iran. Zeitschrift Fur Geomorphologie Berlin.

Holmlund, P., 1991. Cirques at low altitudes need not necessarily have been cut by small glaciers. Geografiska Annaler 73A, 9–16.

Höfer, H.V., 1879. Gletscher und Eiszeitstudien Sitzungberichte der Academie der Wissenschaften in Wien.  Mathematische naturwis senschaftliche Klasse. I, 79: 331-367.

Ivy-Ochs, S., Schpfer, J., Kubik, P., Synal, H.A., Schlfchter, C., 2004. Timing of deglaciation on the northern Alpine foreland (Switzerland). Ecologae Geologicae Helvetiae, 97: 47-55.

Barr, I.D., Spagnolo, M., 2015. Glacial cirques as palaeoenvironmental indicators: Their potential

and limitations. Earth-Science Reviews 151: 48–78

Kesici, O., 2005. Glacio-morphological investigations of Siiphan and Cilo Mountains in regard to current global warming trends. TUbITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) Report No: 101Y131 (in Turkish).

Klebelsberg, R.V., 1948. Handbuch der Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie. Vol.1 and 2, Wien, Springer, 1028 pp.

Klein, A.G., Seltzer, G.O., Isacks, B.L., 1999. Modern and last local glacial maximum snowlines in the Central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile. Quaternary Research Reviews 18: 63–84.

Krinsley, D.B., 1970. A geomorphological and paleoclimatological study of the playas of Iran. US Geol. Surv., Contr. No. PRO CP 70-800. Washington, D.C.

Kuhle, M., 1974. Vorläufige Ausführungen morphologischer Feldarbeitsergebnisse aus den SE-Iranischen Hochgebirgen am Beispiel des Kuh-i-Jupar.  Z. Geomorphol. N.F., 18: 472-483.

Kuhle, M., 1976. Beitrage zur Quartarmorphologie SE-Iranischer Hochgebirge Die quartare  Vergletscherung des Kuh-i-Jupar. Gottinger Geographische Abhandlungen: No. 67. 2 Volume. p. 103 and p. 209.

Kuhle, M., 1982. Der Dhaulagiri- und Annapurna-Himalaya. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Suppl. Bd. 41, Vol. I, Vol. II, Abb. 1-184, Stuttgart, pp. 1-229 and (1983). Empirische Grundlage. Ergänzungsbd. zu Z.F.G. Suppl. Bd. 41, 383 pp.

Kuhle, M., 1987. Subtropical mountain and highland glaciation as ice age triggers and the waning of the glacial periods in the Pleistocene. GeoJournal, 14, 4: 393-421.

Kuhle, M., 1988a. Topography as a Fundamental Element of Glacial Systems, A New Approach to ELA Calculation and Typological Classification of Paleo- and Recent Glaciations. Geo Journal: 17(4): 545-568.

Kuhle, M., 1988b. The Pleistocene glaciation of Tibet and the onset of ice ages – An autocycle hypothesis. GeoJournal., 17(4) Tibet and High-Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I): 581–596.

Kuhle, M., 1991. Glacialgeomorphologie. Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 213 pp.

Kuhle, M., 1998. Reconstruction of the 2.4 million km2 late pleistocene ice sheet on the tibetan plateau and its impact on the global climate. Quat. Internat.: 45/46: 71-108 (Erratum: 47/48:173-182, 1998 included)

Kuhle, M., 2001. The maximum Ice Age (LGM) glaciation of the Central- and South Karakorum: an investigation of the heights of its glacier levels and ice thicknesses as well as lowest prehistoric ice margin positions in the Hindukush, Himalaya and in East-Tibet on the Minya Konka-massif. In Kuhle, M. (ed.), Tibet and High Asia (VI), Glacio-geomorphology and prehistoric Glaciation in the Karakorum and Himalaya. GeoJournal, 54: 109–396.

Kuhle, M., 2004. The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and LGM) glacier cover in High and Central Asia. Accompanying text to the mapwork in hand with detailed references to the literature of the underlying empirical investigations. In: Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. L. (Eds.). Extent and Chronology of Glaciations, (Latin America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica). Amsterdam, Elsevier B.V., 3: 175-199.

Kuhle, M., 2007. The Pleistocene Glaciation (LGP and pre-LGP, pre-LGM) of SE-Iranian Mountains exemplified by the Kuh-i-Jupar, Kuh-i-Lalezar and Kuh-i-Hezar Massifs in the Zagros. Polarforschung, 77: 71–88.

Kuhle, M., 2011. Ice Age. Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Springer Publication, 1300 pp.

Kuhle, M., 2013. The uplift of High Asia above the snowline and its Glaciation as an albedo-dependent cause of the Quaternary ice ages. Nova Science Publisher New York, Additional e-books in this series with color graphics can be found on Nova’s website under the e-book tab, 240pp.

Lie, O., Dahl, S.O., Nesje, A., 2003. A theoretical approach to glacier equilibrium-line altitudes using meteorological data and glacier mass balance records from southern Norway. The Holocene: 13: 365-372.

Louis, H., 1955. Schneegrenze und Schneegrenzbestimmung. Geographisches Taschenbuch, 414–418.

Mayewski, A., Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J., 1981. Late Wis-consin Ice Sheets in North America; Chapter 2. In Denton, G.H., Hughes, T.J. (eds.), The Last Great Ice Sheets. New York, Wiley, 67–178.

Meierding, T.C. 1982. Late Pleistocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the Colorado Front Range: a comparison of methods. Quaternary Research, 18: 289–310

Messerli, B., 1967. Die eiszeitliche und die gegenwartige Vergletscherung in Mittelmeerraum. Geogr. Helv., 22: 105-228.

Mitchell, S.G., Montgomery, D.R., 2006. Influence of a glacial buzzsaw on the height and morphology of the Cascade Range in central Washington State, USA. Quaternary Research, 65: 96-107.

Moussavi, M.S., Valadan, Zoej. M.J., Vaziri, F., Sahebi, M.R., Rezaei, Y., 2009. A new glacier inventory of Iran. Annals of Glaciology: 50 (53).

National Cartographic Center of Iran NCC (2010) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Shahrekord Block, 10m spatial resolution base on topographic map with scale 1: 25,000.  NCC, Tehran, IRAN.

Nematollahi, F., Ramesht, M. H., 2005. Effects of Glaciations in Iran, Modares Human Sciences, Vol. 9, 4: 143-162.

Pedrami, M., 1982. Pleistocene and Paleo Climate in Iran. Geo, l, Surv, Tehran.

Penck, A., Brückner, E., 1909. Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter. 1.

Porter, S.C., 1981. Glaciological evidence of Holocene climatic change. In: Wigley, T.M.L., Ingram, M.J., Farmer, G. (Eds.) Climate and History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 82-110.

Porter, S.C., 2001. Snowline depression in the tropics during the last glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 1067–1091.

Porter, S.C., 2005. Pleistocene snowlines and glaciation of the Hawaiian Islands. Quaternary International: 138–139, 118–128.

Preu, C., 1984. Die quartäre Vergletscherung der inneren Zardeh-Kuh-Gruppe (Zardeh-Kuh-Massiv), Zagros/Iran. Augsburger Geogr. H. 4. Augsburg.

Ramage, J.M., Smith, J.A., Rodbell, D.T., Seltzer, G.O. 2005. Comparing reconstructed Pleistocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the tropical Andes of central Peru. J. Quaternary Sci., 20: 777–788. ISSN 0267-8179.

Ramesht, M. H., Shooshtari, N., 2004. Effects of glaciations in Ghom area. Geographical Researches, 73: 119-132.

Ramesht, M.H., Kazemi, M.M., 2007. The Glacier Effects in Eghlid Fars Basin. The Growth of Geography Education,  21: 4: 11-3.

Rau, F., Mauz, F., Vogt, S., Jodha, S., Khalsa, S., Raup, B., 2005. Illustrated GLIMS Glacier Classification Manual. GLIMS Regional Center ‘Antarctic Peninsula’. University of Freiburg, 36 pp.

Richardson, C., Holmlund, P., 1996. Glacial cirque formation in northern Scandinavia. Annalsof Glaciology, 22: 102–106.

Sarikaya, M.A., Ciner, A., Zreda, M., 2011. Quaternary Glaciations of Turkey. Developments in Quaternary Science. 15. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53447-7.00030-1 ISSN: 1571-0866

Schneider, H.J., 1962. Die Gletschertypen. Versuch im Sinne einer einheitlichen Terminologie. Geographisches Taschenbuch, 276-283.

Schweizer, G., 1970. Der Kuh-E-Sabalan (Nordwestiran): Beiträge zür Gletscherkunde und Glacialgeomorphologie vorder asiatischer Hochgebirge. Tübinger Geogr. Stud.: 34(3): 163–178.

Schweizer, G., 1972. Klimatisch bedingte Geomorphologische und Glazialo-gische Züge der Hochregion vorderasiatischer Gebirge (Iran und Ostanatolien) [Climatically based geomorphological and glaciological characteristics of the high-altitude regions of Near Eastern mountains (Iran and Eastern Anatolia)]: Erdwissenschaftliche Forschung, 4: 221-236.

Seif,  A.,  Ebrahimi, B., 2014. Combined Use of GIS and Experimental Functions for the Morphometric Study of Glacial Cirques in Zardkuh Mountain, IRAN. Quaternary International, 353: 236-249. 

Seif, A., 2015. Equilibrium-line altitudes of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Oshtorankuh Mountain, Iran. Quaternary International, 374: 126-143.

Wright, H.E., 1962. Pleistocene glaciation in Kurdistan. Eiszeit-alter und Gegenwart, 12: 131-164.

Yamani, M., 2001. Geomorphology of Alamkoh Glaciers. Geography Research Quarterly, 42: 1-18.

Yamani, M., 2007. Geomorphology of Zardkouh glaciers. Geography Research (Iran), 59: 125-139.

Yamani, M., Shamsipoor, A., Jafari, M., 2011. Reconstruction of Pleistocene ELA in Jajroud basin. Physical Geography Research Quarterly, 76: 35-50.

Yamani, M., Jedari Eyvazi, J., Gorabi, A., 2007. The Geomorphological Traces of Glaciers Boundaries in Karkas Mountains. Spatial Planning, 1.

Zomorodian, M. J., 2002. Geomorphology of Iran. Publication of Ferdosi University, 355, 288pp. (in Persian).