Karstification Potential Mapping in Northeast of Khuzestan Province, Iran, using Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran


The primary objective of the current study is to produce karstification potentiality maps in northeast of Khuzestan province, Iran, using both fuzzy logic and AHP models as an additional tool in hydrogeological research. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are used to create two maps depicting the development of the karstification, consisting of five classes, showing the karstification potentiality ranging from very high to very low. The extractions of these maps are based on the study of input data such as: lithology, lineament density, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, drainage density and vegetation cover. Eventually, two maps based on weighted spatial modeling system are created. The verification results show that the fuzzy logic model outperformed AHP model for the study area. Based on hydrogeological survey, hydrodynamic characteristics perceived at the outlet of major springs consisting of Dare-Anari (DA), Abshekaloo (AS) and Sarhooni (SH) revealed poorly and well developed karstified systems. The collected data indicated that one of the main factors for karst development in the area is tectonic activity and occurrence of lineaments in various scales.


Article Title [فارسی]

تهیه نقشه پتانسیل توسعه کارست در شمال شرقی استان خوزستان، ایران با استفاده از تکنیک های منطق فازی و فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)

Authors [فارسی]

  • نصرالله کلانتری
  • عباس چرچی
Abstract [فارسی]

هدف اصلی از این مطالعه تهیه نقشه های پتانسیل توسعه کارست در شمال شرقی استان خوزستان با استفاده از دو مدل منطق فازی و فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، به عنوان ابزاری مکمل در تحقیقات هیدرولوژیکی می باشد. سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) و سنجش از دور (RS) به منظور ایجاد دو نقشه ای که توسعه کارست منطقه را به تصویر می کشند، استفاده شده است. این نقشه ها متشکل از پنج طبقه می باشند که پتانسیل توسعه کارست را از بسیار زیاد تا خیلی کم نشان می دهند. استخراج این نقشه ها بر اساس مطالعه داده های ورودی مانند لیتولوژی، تراکم خطواره، ارتفاع، شیب، بارش، دما، تراکم آبراهه و پوشش گیاهی صورت گرفته است. وزن های اختصاص یافته به تمام این عوامل با توجه به ارتباط آنها با پتانسیل توسعه کارست انجام گرفته است. در نهایت، دو نقشه بر اساس سیستم مدل سازی مکانی وزن دار ایجاد شد. نتایج صحت سنجی نشان داد که مدل منطق فازی نسبت به مدل AHP در مورد منطقه مورد مطالعه عملکرد بهتری دارد. بر اساس بررسی های هیدروژئولوژیکی، خصوصیات هیدرودینامیکی بدست آمده از تحلیل دبی خروجی چشمه های دره اناری، آبشکالو و سرحونی توسعه ضعیف تا خوب کارست منطقه را نشان می دهد. اطلاعات بدست آمده حاکی از آن است که یکی از مهمترین فاکتورهای توسعه کارست منطقه فعالیت های تکتونیکی و تشکیل خطواره ها در مقیاس های مختلف می باشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • پتانسیل توسعه کارست
  • سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی
  • سنجش از دور
  • فرایند تحلیل سلسه مراتبی
  • منطق فازی
Abbaspour, KC., Faramarzi, M., Ghasemi, SS., Yang, H., 2009. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in Iran. water resources research, 45: 1-16
Aghanabati, A., 2004. Iran’s Geology, Publication of Geology Organization (In Persian)
Alavi, M., 2004. Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of Iran and its proforeland evolution. American Journal of Science, 304: 1-20
Ashjari, J and Raeisi, E., 2006. Influences of anticlinal structure on regional flow, Zagros, Iran. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 68(3): 118-129.
Ayalew, L., Yamagishi, H., 2005. The application of GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Kakuda–Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan. Geomorphology, 65: 15-31
Ayazi, MH., Pirasteh, S., Arvin, AKP., Pradhan, B., Nikouravan, B., Mansor, S., 2010. Disasters and risk reduction in groundwater: Zagros Mountain Southwest Iran using geo-informatics techniques. Dis Adv, 3(1): 51-57
Baghvand, A., Nasrabadi, T., Bidhendi, GN., Vosoogh, A., Karbassi, A., Mehrdadi, N., 2010. Groundwater quality degradation of an aquifer in Iran central desert. Desalination, 260: 264–275.
Bastani, M., Kholghi, M., Rakhshandehroo, GR., 2010. Inverse modeling of variable-density groundwater flow in a semi-arid area in Iran using a genetic algorithm. Journal of Hydrogeology, 18: 1191-1203
Black, T.J., 1997. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan. Carbonates and Evaporites, 12: 81-83.
Bonacci, O., Gottstein, S., Roje-Bonacci, T., 2009a. Negative impacts of grouting on the underground karst environment. Ecohydrology, 2:492-502.
Bonacci, O., Pipan, T., Culver, D.C., 2009b. A framework for karst ecohydrology. Environmental Geology, 56: 891-900.
Bonacci, O., Roje-Bonacci, T., 2008. Water losses from the Ricice reservoir built in the Dinaric karst. Engineering Geology, 99:121-127.
Calaforra, J.M., Pulido-Bosch, A., 2003. Evolution of the gypsum karst of Sorbas (SE Spain). Geomorphology, 50:173–180.
Chitsazan M., Karimi Vardanjani H., Karimi H., Charchi, A., 2015. A comparison between karst development in two main zones of Iran: case study-Keyno anticline (Zagros Range) and Shotori anticline (Central Iran). ArabJ Geosci. doi:10.1007/s12517-015-1961-x
Chung, C.J.F., Fabbri, A.G., 2003. Validation of spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping. Nat Hazards, 30(3): 451-472
Cvijic, J., 1893. Das Karstphänomen. Versuch einer morphologischen Monographie. Geographische Abhandlungen Wien, 5: 218–329.
De Waele, J., Plan, L., Audra, P., 2009. Recent developments in surface and subsurface karst geomorphology: an introduction. Geomorphology, 106: 1-8.
Doll, P., Lehner, B., Kaspar, F., 2002. Global Modeling of groundwater recharge. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on water resources and the environment research, vol. 1, Technical University of Dresden, Germany, pp. 27-33.
Domakinis, C., Oikonomidis, D., Astaras, T., 2008. Landslide mapping in the coastal area between the Strymonic Gulf and Kavala (Macedonia, Greece) with the aid of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Intern. J. Rem. Sens, 29 (23): 6893-6915.
Field, M.S., 2010. Simulating drainage from a flooded sinkhole. Acta Carsologica, 39: 361-378.
Ford, D., 2007. Jovan Cvijic and the founding of karst geomorphology. Environmental Geology, 51:675-684.
Ford, D., Williams, P., 2007. Karst hydrogeology and Geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Toronto.
Ghayoumian, J., Mohseni Saravi, M., Feiznia, S., Nourib, B., Malekian, A., 2007. Application of GIS techniques to determine areas most suitable for artificial groundwater recharge in a coastal aquifer in southern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sci, 30:364-37.
Goldscheider, N., Madl-Szonyi, J., Eross, A., Schill, E., 2010. Review: thermal water resources in carbonate rock aquifers. Journal of Hydrogeology, 18:1303-1318.
Groves, C., Meiman, J., 2005. Weathering, geomorphic work, and karst landscape evolution in the Cave City groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Geomorphology, 67: 115–126.
Haririan, M., 1990. Iran’s Geomorphology, Publication of Islamic Azad University, pp: 96. (In Persian)
Hosseini, M., Ghafouri, A.M., Amin. M.S.M., Tabatabaei, M.R., Goodarzi, M., Abde Kolahchi, A., 2012. Effects of land use changes onwater balance in Taleghan Catchment, Iran. Journal of Agric Sci Tech, 14:1159-1172.
Humphreys, W.F., 2006. Aquifers: the ultimate groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Australian Journal of Botany, 54:115-132.
Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration 1967. Geological maps, sheets: Lali, Keyno and Kamestan. Scale 1:100.000
James, G.A., Wynd, J.G., 1965. Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. American Association of petroleum Geologists Bul, 49: 2182-224
Johnson, S.B., Stieglitz, R.D., 1990. Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin. Geomorphology, 4:37-54.
Kalantari, N., Ghafari, H.R., Keshavarzi, M.R., Mallaei, M.R., 2011. Factors impacting on flow pattern in the Shimbar karstic area in the southwest of Iran. 9th conference on limestone hydrogeology, 2011, Besancon, France.
Karimi, H., Raeisi, E., Zare, M., 2003. Hydrodynamic Behavior of the Gilan Karst Spring, West of the Zagros, Iran. Journal of Cave and Karst Science, 30 (1): 15-22.
Karimi, H., Raeisi, E., Zare, M., 2001. Determination of catchment area of aquifer bearing Tangab dam site using water balance method. Proceedings of The second national conference on engineering geology and the environment, Tehran, 16-18 Oct. 2001, V.2, P. 773-755.
Maleki, D., Shoohani, M., Alaeitaleghani 2009. Zooning of Karst development in Kermanshah provine, Modarres seasonal of humanities, 13th course 1: 272-295 (In Persian)
Moghimi, H., 2010. Karst Hydrology, Publication of Payam-e Noor (In Persian)
Neshat, A., Pradhan, B., Pirasteh, S., Shafri, H.Z.M., 2013. Estimating groundwater vulnerability to pollution using modified DRASTIC model in the Kerman agricultural area. Iran Environ Earth Sci.
Nosrati, K., Eeckhaut, M.V.D., 2012. Assessment of groundwater quality using multivariate statistical techniques in Hashtgerd Plain, Iran. Environ Earth Sci, 65:331-344.
Pezeshkpour, P., 1991. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical evaluation of Kuh-e Gar-Barm-Firooz springs, Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Shiraz University, pp. 282.
Raeisi, E., 1999. Calculation method of karst water balance in Zagros Simple Folded zone, Proceedings of the first Regional Conference on water balance, Ahwaz, p. 39-49.
Rahmati, O., 2013. An investigation of quantitative zonation and groundwater potential (case study: Ghorveh-Dehgolan plain). M.Sc. thesis, Tehran University.
Rahnemaaie, M., 1994. Evaluation of infiltration and runoff in the karstified carbonatic rocks, Unpublished Master of Science Thesis, Shiraz University, Iran.
Ravbar, N., Goldscheider, N., 2007. Proposed methodology of vulnerability and contamination risk mapping for the protection of karst aquifers in Slovenia. Acta Carsologica ,36: 397-411.
Saaty, T.L., 1977. A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 15: 234-281.
Saaty, T.L., Vargas, G.L., 2001. Models, Methods, Concepts, and Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Boston.
Stocklin, J., Setudehnia, A., 1977. Stratigraphic lexicon of Iran. Geology Survey of Iran, 376 pp
Vigna, B., Fiorucci, A., Banzato, C., Forti, P., De Waele, J., 2010. Hypogene gypsum karst and sinkhole formation at Moncalvo (Asti, Italy). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54, 285–306.
Fu Yeh, H., Sin Cheng, Y., I. Lin, H., Haw Lee, Ch., 2016. Mapping groundwater recharge potential zone using a GIS approach in Hualian River, Taiwan, Sustainable Environment Research journal, in press.
Water Resources Investigation and Planning Bureau 1993. Comprehensive study and research in water resources of the Maharlu karst basin (Fars). Vol.1-4.
Zadeh, L. A., 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8:338-353.
Zarghami, M., Abdi, A., Babaeian, I., Hassanzade, Y., Kanani, R., 2011. Impacts of climate change on runoffs in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Glob Planet Chang, 78(3-4):137-146.