Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the Late Campanian- Early Maastrichtian form Gurpi Formation (Dezful embayment, SW Iran): Evidence of a climate cooling event

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

A succession of Late Campanian- Early Maastrichtian is analyzed from Gurpi Formation with regard to the calcareous nannofossils. Correlation Matrix was applied for the first time to the entire nannofossil assemblage to reconstruct environmental conditions. A detailed quantitative calcareous nannofossil analyses is performed on samples in order to further investigate the climate events, and interpret changes of surface water temperature. The calcareous nannofossil assemblage is divided into 3 groups as cold, cool and warm water taxa. Although cold water taxa (Ahmuellerella octoradiata and Gartnerago segmentatum) are rare (less than 1%), cool (Eiffellithus turriseiffelii, Prediscosphaera cretacea, Micula staurophora, Zeugrhabdotus spp., Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis, Biscutum constans, Tranolithus orionatus and Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii) and warm (Watznaueria barnesae, Uniplanarius trifidus, Uniplanarius sissinghii, Ceratolithoides spp. and Broinsonia spp.) water taxa are more frequent. The number of warm water taxa is higher than the number of cool water taxa and a reverse trend can be observed between them. Concerning the temperature index (TI), four important trends of climate variability from warmer to cooler phases (two cooling phases and two warming phases) have been documented at the studied interval. According to the recorded data, two pronounced cooling event are observed at Late Campanian and Early Maastrichtian, respectively.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی تجمع نانوفسیلهای آهکی کامپانین پسین – مایستریشتین پیشین در سازند گورپی (فروافتادگی دزفول، جنوب غرب ایران): ثبت شواهدی از حادثه سردشدگی

Author [Persian]

  • اعظم ماهانی پور
گروه زمین‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

 
در مطالعه حاضر تجمع نانوفسیل‌های آهکی در توالی رسوبات کامپانین پسین – مایستریشتین پیشین در سازند گورپی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در این مطالعه برای اولین ماتریکس تطابقی برای بررسی تجمع نانوفسیلهای آهکی و بازسازی شرایط محیطی استفاده شد. تحلیل کمی تجمع نانوفسیلهای آهکی جهت بررسی حوادث آب و هوایی و تفسیر تغییرات درجه حرارت آبهای سطحی بر روی نمونه‌ها انجام شد. تجمع نانوفسیل‌های آهکی بر اساس درجه حرارت به سه گروه گونه‌های بسیار سرد، سرد و گرم تقسیم می‌شوند. اگرچه گونه‌های شاخص آبهای بسیار سرد (Ahmuellerella octoradiata  و Gartnerago segmentatum) نادر می‌باشند (کمتر از یک درصد)، اما گونه‌های شاخص آب سرد (Eiffellithus turriseiffelii، Prediscosphaera cretacea، Micula staurophora، Zeugrhabdotus spp.، Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis، Biscutum constans، Tranolithus orionatusو Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii) و گرم (Watznaueria barnesae، Uniplanarius trifidus، Uniplanarius sissinghii، Ceratolithoides spp. و Broinsonia spp.) بسیار رایج هستند. تعداد گونه‌های شاخص آب گرم بیش از تعداد گونه‌های آب سرد است و یک روند معکوس بین آنها دیده می‌شود. با در نظر گرفتن شاخص درجه حرارت (Temperature Index=TI)، چهار روند مهم نوسانات آب و هوایی، از درجه حرارت گرمتر به سمت فازهای سردتر (دو مرحله سردشدگی و دو مرحله گرم‌شدگی) در محدوده مورد مطالعه ثبت شده است. بر طبق داده‌های ثبت شده، دو حادثه سردشدگی واضح به ترتیب در کامپانین پسین و مایستریشتین پیشین ثبت شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • کامپانین پسین
  • مایستریشتین پیشین
  • نانوفسیل‌های آهکی
  • حادثه سردشدگی
  • سازند گورپی
  • حوضه زاگرس
Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., Mouthereau, F., 2005. Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation. International journal of earth sciences, 94 (3): 401-419.

Ala, M.A., Kinghorn, R.R.F., Rahman, M., 1980. Organic geochemistry and source rock characteristics of the Zagros Petroleum Province, SW Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 3: 61-89.

Bahrami, M., Parvanehnezhad Shirazi, M., 2010. Microfacies and sedimentary environments of Gurpi and Pabdeh Formations and the type of Mesozoic– Cenozoic boundary in Fars province, Iran. Journal of Applied Geology, 5 (4): 330-335.

Barrera, E., 1994. Global environmental changes preceding the Cretaceous-Tertairy boundary: Early-late Maastrichtian transition. Geology, 22: 877-880.

Barrera, E., Savin, S.M., 1999. Evolution of late Campanian-Maastrichtian marine climates and oceans, in Barrera, E., and Johnson, C.C., (eds.), The evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System. Special Papers of the Geological Society of America, 332: 245-282.

Barrera, E., Savin, S.M., Thomas, E., Jones, C.E., 1997. Evidence for thermohalinecirculation reversals controlled by sea level change in the latest Cretaceous. Geology, 25: 715-718.

Beiranvand, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, E., 2013. High resolution planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation, K/Pg boundary of the Izeh Zone, SW Iran. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 16 (1): 5-26.

Beiranvand, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, E., Kamali, M.R., 2013. Palynomorphs response to sea-level fluctuations: a case study from Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, Gurpi Formation, SW Iran. Journal of Geopersia, 3 (1): 11-24.

Berberian, M., King, G. C. P., 1981. Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 18: 210-265.

Bergen, J. A., Sikora, P. J., 1999. Microfossil diachronism in southern Norwegian North Sea chalks: Valhall and Hod fields. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 152(1): 85-111.

Boersma, A., Shackleton, N. J., 1981. Oxygen-and carbon-isotope variations and planktonic-foraminifer depth habitats, Late Cretaceous to Paleocene, central Pacific, Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 463 and 465. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 62: 513-526.

Bown, P.R., 1998. Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. British Micropaleontology Society Publication Series. Chapman and Hall, London, 328 pp.

Bukry, D., 1973. Coccolith stratigraphy, eastern equatorial Pacific, Leg 16, Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 16: 653-711.

Burnett, J. A., 1998. Upper Cretaceous. In: Bown, P.R. (Eds.), Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy, British Micropalaeontological Society Publication Series. Chapman and Hall Ltd. Kluwer Academic Publisher, London, pp. 132-165.

Campbell, R.J., Howe, R.W., Rexilius, J.P., 2004. Middle Campanian–lowermost Maastrichtian nannofossil and foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the northwestern Australian margin. Cretaceous Research, 25: 827-864.

Daneshian, J., Fazli, L., Baghbani, D., 2010. Forminifera biostratigraphy of the Gurpi and Tarbur formations in northeast Jahrum. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches, 26 (1): 89-102.

Darvishzadeh, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, E., Ghourchaei, S., Keller, G., 2007. Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy and Faunal Turnover across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in Southwestern Iran. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 18 (2): 139-149.

Friedrich, O., Hemleben, C., 2007. Early Maastrichtian benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the western North Atlantic (Black Nose) and their relation to paleoenvironmental changes. Marine Micropalentology, 62: 31-44.

Friedrich, O., Herrle, J.O., Hemleben, C., 2005. Climatic changes in the Late Campanian– Early Maastrichtian: micropaleontological and stable isotopic evidence from an epicontinental sea. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 35: 228-247.

Friedrich, O., Herrle, J.O., Wilson, P.A., Cooper, M.J., Erbacher, J., Hemleben, C., 2009. Early Maastrichtian carbon cycle perturbation and cooling event: implications from the South Atlantic Ocean. Paleoceanography, 24. doi:10.1029/ 2008PA001654.

Friedrich, O., Meier, S., 2006. Suitability of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts for paleoclimatic studies: Evidence from the Campanian- Maastrichtian cooling phase. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 239: 456-469.

Friedrich, O., Norris, R.D., Erbacher, J., 2012. Evolution of middle to Late Cretaceous oceans - a 55 m.y. record of Earths temperature and carbon cycle. Geology, 40: 107-110.

Gardin, S., Del Panta, F., Monechi, S., Pozzi, M., 2001. A Tethyan reference section for the Campanian and Maastrichtian stages: the Bottaccione section (Central Italy). Review of the data and new calcareous nannofossil results. In: Odin, G.S. (Eds.), The boundary between the Campanian and the Maastrichtian stages: characterization and correlation from Tercis-les-Nains to Europe and other continents. Developments in paleontology and stratigraphy series 19. Elsevier Sciences Publication. Amsterdam, pp. 820-833.

Gardin, S., Galbrun, B., Thibault, N., Coccioni, R., Premoli Silva, I., 2012. Bio-magnetochronology for the upper Campanian ― Maastrichtian from the Gubbio area, Italy: new results from the Contessa Highway and Bottaccione sections. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 45 (1): 75-103.

Gardin, S., Monechi, S., 2001. Calcareous nannofossil distribution in the Tercis geological site (Landes, SW France) around the Campanian– Maastrichtian boundary. In: Odin, G. S. (Eds.), The Campanian– Maastrichtian Stage Boundary. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, 19, pp. 272-284.

Ghasemi-Nejad, E., Hobbi M.H., Schiøler P., 2006. Dinoflagellate and foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation (upper Santonian–upper Maastrichtian), Zagros Mountains, Iran. Cretaceous Research, 27(6): 828–835.

Hemmati-Nasab, M., Ghasemi nejad, E., Darvishzadeh, B., 2008. Paleobathymetry of the Gurpi Formation based on benthic and planktonic foraminifera in Southwestern Iran. Journal of Science, Islamic Republic of Iran, 34: 157-173.

Herrle, J. O., Pross, J., Friedrich, O., Kößler, P., Hemleben, C., 2003. Forcing mechanisms for mid-Cretaceous black shale formation: evidence from the Upper Aptian and Lower Albian of the Vocontian Basin (SE France). Palaeogeography, Palaeoceanography, Palaeoecology, 190: 390-426.

Holmes, M. A., Watkins, D. K., 1992. Middle and Late Cretaceous history of the Indian Ocean. In Synthesis of results from scientific drilling in the Indian Ocean. Geophysical Monograph, 70: 225-244.

Huber, B. T., Watkins, D.K., 1992. Biogeography of Campanian- Maastrichtian calcareous plankton in the region of the Southern Ocean: Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic implications. In: Kennett, J.P., Warnke, D.A. (Eds.), The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change. American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series 56, Washington, pp. 31-60.

Huber, B.T., 1992. Paleobiogeography of Campanian- Maastrichtian foraminifera in the southern high latitudes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 92: 325-360.

Huber, B.T., Norris, R.D., MacLeod, K.G., 2002. Deep-sea paleotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous. Geology, 30: 123-126.

James, G. A., Wynd, J. G., 1965. Stratigraphic Nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement Area. AAPG Bulletin, 49: 2182–2245.

Jenkyns, H.C., Gale, A.S., Corfield, R.M., 1994. Carbon and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of the English Chalk and Italian Scalia and its palaeoclimatic significance. Geological Magazine, 131: 1-34.

Jung, C., Voigt, S., Friedrich, O., Koch, M. C., Frank, M., 2013. Campanian‐Maastrichtian ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific. Paleoceanography, 28(3): 562-573.

Kessels, K., Mutterlose, J., Ruffell, A., 2003. Calcareous nannofossils from late Jurassic sediments of the Volga Basin (Russian Platform): evidence for productivity controlled black shale deposition. International Journal of Earth Science, 92: 743-757.

Lees, J.A., 2002. Calcareous nannofossil biogeography illustrates palaeoclimate change in the Late Cretaceous Indian Ocean. Cretaceous Research, 23: 537-634.

Li, L., Keller, G., 1998. Maastrichtian climate, productivity and faunal turnovers in planktic foraminifera in South Atlantic DSDP sites 525A and 21. Marine Micropaleontology, 33: 55-86.

Li, L., Keller, G., 1999. Variability in Late Cretaceous and deep waters: evidence from stable isotopes. Marine Geology, 161: 171-190.

Linnert, C., Mutterlose, J., 2009. Evidence of increasing surface water oligotrophy during the Campanian- Maastrichtian boundary interval: Calcareous nannofossils from DSDP Hole 390A (Black Nose). Marine Micropaleontology, 73: 26-36.

Linnert, C., Mutterlose, J., 2013. Biometry of Cenomanian-Turonian placoliths: a proxy for changes of fertility and surface water temperature? Lethaia, 46 (1): 82-97.

Linnert, C., Mutterlose, J., Herrle, J.O., 2011. Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Maastrichtian) calcareous nannofossils from Goban Spur (DSDP Sites 549, 551): Implications for the palaeoceanography of the proto North Atlantic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 299: 507-528.

MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., 1996. Reorganization of deep ocean circulation accompanying a Late Cretaceous extinction event. Nature, 380: 422-425.

Miller, K.G., Kominz, M.A., Browning, J.V., Wright, J.D., Mountain, G.S., Katz, M.E., Sugarman, P.J., Cramer, B.S., Christie-Blick, N., Pekar, S.F., 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science, 310: 1293-1298.

Moosavi M.H., Abdolzadeh S., Kamali M.R., Ahmadi A., Kabi-Mofrad A., 2013. Organic Geochemistry of Upper Cretaceous (Gurpi Formation) and Paleogene (Pabdeh Formation) Source Rocks in Par-E-Siah Field, NW Izeh, Iran. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches, 28 (4): 1-24.

Motiei, H. (Ed.), 1994. Geology of Iran: Stratigraphy of Zagros. Geological Survey of Iran, 536 pp.

Motiei, H., 2003. Stratigraphy of Zagros, Treatise on the geology of Iran. Tehran, Iran, Geology Survey Press, 583pp.

Mutterlose, J., 1992. Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of Early Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils. Cretaceous Research, 13: 167-189.

Mutterlose, J., 1996. Calcareous nannofossil palaeoceanography of the Early Cretaceous of NW Europe. Mitt. Geol. Staatsinst.Hambg, 77: 291-313.

Najafpour, A., Mahanipour, A., Dastanpour, M., 2015. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sediments in southwest Iran. Arabian Journal of Geoscience, 8: 6037-6046.

Odin, G. S., Lamaurelle, M.A., 2001. The global Campanian ― Maastrichtian stage boundary. Episodes, 24: 229-237.

Ogg, J.G., Hinnov, L.A., Huang, C., 2012. Chapter 27- Cretaceous, In: Gradstein, F.M., Schmitz, J.G.O.D., Ogg, G.M. (Eds.), The Geologic Time Scale. Elsevier, Boston, pp. 793-853.

Okada, H., Honjo, S., 1973. The distribution of oceanic coccolithophorids in the Pacific. In Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts (Vol. 20, No. 4, 355–374). Elsevier. Persico, D., Villa, G. 2004. Eocene–Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Maud Rise and Kerguelen Plateau (Antarctica): paleoecological and paleoceanographic implications. Marine Micropaleontology, 52(1): 153-179.

Oveisi, B., Lavé, J., Van Der Beek, P., Carcaillet, J., Benedetti, L., Aubourg, C., 2009. Thick-and thin-skinned deformation rates in the central Zagros simple folded zone (Iran) indicated by displacement of geomorphic surfaces. Geophysical Journal International, 176(2): 627-654.

Perch-Nielsen, K., 1979. Calcareous nannofossils from the Cretaceous between the North Sea and the Mediterranean. In Aspekte der Kreide Europas, 6: 223-272.

Perch-Nielsen, K., 1985. Mesozoic calcareous nannofossils. In: Bolli, H.M., et al. (Eds.) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, pp. 329-426.

Persico, D., Villa, G., 2004. Eocene–Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Maud Rise and Kerguelen Plateau (Antarctica): paleoecological and paleoceanographic implications. Marine Micropaleontology, 52: 153-179.

Pospichal, J. J., 1996. Calcareous nannoplankton mass extinction at the Cretac eous/Tertiary boundary: an update. In: Ryder, G., Fastovsky, D., Gartner, S . (Eds.), The Cretaceous- Tertiary Event and other Catastrophes in Earth History. Geological Society of America 307, pp. 335-360.

Pospichal, J.J., Wise Jr., S.W., 1990. Calcareous nannofossils across the K–T boundary, ODP Hole 690C, Maud Rise, Weddell Sea. In: Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P., et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Oceans Drilling Program, Scientific Results 113. College Station, Texas, pp. 515-532.

Razmjooei, M.J., Thibault, N., Kani, A., Mahanipour, A., Boussaha, M., Korte, CH., 2014. Coniacian-Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and carbon-isotope stratigraphy in the Zagros Basin (Iran): consequences for the correlation of Late Cretaceous Stage Boundaries between the Tethyan and Boreal realms. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 47 (2): 183-209.

Roth, P. H. 1978. Cretaceous nannoplankton biostratigraphy and oceanography of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 44: 731-760.

Roth, P.H., Krumbach, K.R., 1986. Middle Cretaceous nannofossil biogeography and preservation in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans: implications for palaeoceanography. Marine Micropaleontology, 10: 235-266.

Sadeghi, A., Darabi, Gh., 2015. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches, 31 (3) :19-36.

Setudehnia, A., 1972. Stratigraphic Lexicon of Iran. Union International des Sciences Geologiques, 315 pp.

Setudehnia, A., 1978. The Mesozoic sequence in southwest Iran and adjacent areas. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 1: 3–42.

Shafik, S., 1990. Late Cretaceous nannofossil biostratigraphy and biogeography of the Australian western margin Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Report, 295: 1-164.

Shannon, C. E., Weaver, W., 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 125 pp.

Sissingh W., 1977. Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous Nannoplankton. Geol. Minjb., 56, Den Haag. Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W., 1949. The mathematical theory of information. Thierstein, H.R., 1980. Selective dissolution of Late Cretaceous and Earliest Tertiary calcareous nannofossils: experimental evidence. Cretaceous Research, 2: 165-176.

Stoneley, R., 1974. Evolution of the continental margin boundary a former Southern Tethys. In: Burk C.A. and Darke C.L. (Eds.), The Geology of Continental Margins. Springer-Verlog, Berlin, 889–902.

Stoneley, R., 1990. The Middle East Basin: A Summary Overview. In J. Brooks (Ed.), Classic Petroleum Provinces, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 50: 293–298.

Street, C., Bown, P.R., 2000. Palaeobiogeography of Early Cretaceous (Berriasian- Barremian) calcareous nannoplankton. Marine Micropaleontology, 39: 265-291.

Takin, M. 1972. Iranian geology and continental drift in the Middle East. nature, 235: 147-150.

Tantawy, A.A.A.M., 2002. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Cretaceous- Tertiary transition in the central eastern desert of Egypt. Marine Micropaleontology, 47: 323-356.

Thibault, N., Gardin, S., 2006. Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecology in the Equatorial Atlantic (Demerara Rise, ODP Leg 207 Hole 1258A). Revue de Micropaleontologie, 49: 199-214.

Thibault, N., Gardin, S., 2007. The late Maastrichtian nannofossil record of climate change in the South Atlantic DSDP Hole 525A. Marine Micropaleontology, 65: 163-184.

Thibault, N., Gardin, S., 2010. The calcareous nannofossil response to the end-Cretaceous warm event in the Tropical Pacific. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 291: 239-252.

Thibault, N., Harlou, R., Schovsbo, N., Schiøler, P., Minoletti, F., Galbrun, B., Lauridsen, B.W., Sheldon, E., Stemmerik, L., Surlyk, F., 2012. Upper Campanian–Maastrichtian nannofossil biostratigraphy and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy of the Danish Basin: Towards a standard δ13C curve for the Boreal Realm. Cretaceous Research, 33: 72-90.

Thierstein, H. R., 1980. Selective dissolution of Late Cretaceous and Earliest Tertiary calcareous nannofossils: experimental evidence. Cretaceous Research, 2: 165-176.

Thierstein, H.R., 1981. Late Cretaceous nannoplankton and the change at the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. In: Warme, J.E., Douglas, R.G., Winterer, E.L. (Eds.), The Deep Sea Drilling Project: a decade of progress. SEPM Special Publication, 32: 355-394.

Thierstein, H.R., 1976. Mesozoic calcareous nannoplankton Biostratigraphy of Marine Sediments. Marine Micropaleontology, 1: 325-362.

Vaziri Moghadam, H., 2002. Biostratigraphic study of the Ilam and Gurpi formations based on planktonic foraminifera in SE of Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Science, Islamic Republic of Iran 13 (4): 339-356.

Vincent, B., van Bochem, F.S.P., Bulot, L.G., Immenhauser, A., Caron, M., Baghbani, D., Huc, A.Y., 2010. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and organic matter distribution in the Aptian-Lower Albian successions of southwest Iran (Dariyan and Kazhdumi formations). GeoArabia Special Publications 4 (1), 139-197.

Voigt, S., Friedrich, O., Norris, R.D., Schönfeld, J., 2010. Campanian- Maastrichtian carbon isotoe stratigraphy: shelf-ocean correlation between the European shelf sea and the tropical Pacific Ocean. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 44 (1): 57-72.

Watkins, D. K., 1992. Upper Cretaceous nannofossils from Leg 120, Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 120: 343-370.

Watkins, D.K., Self-Trail, J.M., 2005. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for the existence of the Gulf Stream during the late Maastrichtian Paleoceanography Volume 20, Issue 3. Paleoceanography 20, n/a.

Watkins, D.K., Wise Jr., S.W., Pospichal, J.J., Crux, J., 1996. Upper Cretaceous calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Southern Ocean. In: Moguilevsky, A., Whatley, R. (Eds.), Microfossils and oceanic environments. University of Wales, Aberystwyth Press, pp. 55-381.

Williams, J.R., Bralower, T.J., 1995. Nannofossil assemblages, fine fraction stable isotopes, and the paleoceanography of the Valanginian-Barremian (Early Cretaceous) North Sea Basin Paleoceanography Volume 10, Issue 4. Paleoceanography, 10: 815-839.

Wind, F.H., 1979. Campanian- Maestrichtian nannofloral provinces of the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In: Talwani, M., Hay, W., Ryan, W.B.F. (Eds.), Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Continental Margins and Paleoenvironment. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp. 123-137.

Zarei E, Ghasemi-Nejad E., 2013. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of organic matter from two sections of Gurpi Formation in Lorestan province. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches 29 (4): 1-16.

Zarei E, Ghasemi-Nejad E., 2015. Sequence stratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation (Campanian–Paleocene) in southwest of Zagros, Iran, based on palynomorphs and foraminifera. Arabian Journal of Geoscience 8: 4011–4023.

Ziegler, M.A., 2001. Late Permian to Holocene Paleofacies Evolution of the Arabian Plate and its Hydrocarbon. GeoArabia, 6(3): 445–505.